Saturday, April 5, 2014

Report says Hanford nuclear waste capsules at risk - seattlepi.com

English: Nuclear Waste Container coming out of...
English: Nuclear Waste Container coming out of Nevada Test Site on public roads, March 2010 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Report says Hanford nuclear waste capsules at risk - seattlepi.com

RICHLAND, Wash. (AP) — Nearly 2,000 capsules containing radioactive waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation should be moved, in part because of earthquake danger, according to a new report by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Inspector General.
The 1,936 capsules contain radioactive cesium and strontium and are held in a giant pool of water on the Hanford site, the nation's most polluted nuclear weapons production site.
The report released Wednesday said a severe earthquake could cause a loss of power or water in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility in central Hanford.
The Tri-City Herald (http://bit.ly/1dQx1Jn) said the report suggests the capsules should be moved to dry storage as soon as possible.
"We acknowledge the budgetary challenges facing the department and its impact on moving the capsules into dry storage," report author David Sedillo wrote. "However we suggest that the manager (of the) Richland Operations Office expeditiously proceed with its plans to pursue a dry storage alternative ... at the earliest possible time frame."
Steps were taken to reduce the risk of a severe earthquake to the storage pool after the nuclear disaster three years ago in Fukushima, Japan.
The cesium and strontium were recovered from Hanford's underground waste tanks from 1974-85, packed in corrosion-resistant capsules and placed in underwater storage at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility. The waste is left from the past production of plutonium at Hanford for nuclear weapons.
The capsules, which are about 22 inches long, hold material with 106 million curies of radioactivity, or 32 percent of the total radioactivity at Hanford. The 13 feet of water covering them helps cool the capsules and protects workers from radiation.
The capsules were destined for the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nev., national repository, which DOE no longer plans to develop. That could leave the capsules stored at Hanford until 2048, when DOE plans to open a repository at a location yet to be determined.
The storage facility has been operating for almost 40 years and the concrete in the cells of its underwater pool has begun to deteriorate from radiation exposure.
"Weakened concrete in the walls of the pool increases the risk that a beyond-design earthquake would breach the walls, resulting in the loss of fluid, and thus, loss of shielding for the capsules," the report said.
However, the report noted that an earthquake or other disaster more severe than the storage facility was designed for is "extremely improbable."
After the Fukushima disaster, private contractor CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Co. rearranged about 800 of the underwater capsules to better distribute their heat.
A loss of water in the pool could cause the capsules to corrode or be breached.
CH2M Hill issued a request for information to engineering firms in August to ascertain the cost and feasibility of dry storage.
If the Energy Department can find the money to move the capsules to dry storage, it would save money in the long run, the report said. The move would cost an estimated $83 million to $136 million. But then the storage cost would drop to $1 million a year, compared to the current underwater storage cost of $7.2 million annually.
The sprawling Hanford site is near Richland.
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Agent orange compensation 2013

Major Tự Đức Phang was exposed to dioxin-conta...
Major Tự Đức Phang was exposed to dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Agent orange compensation 2013

A Senior Scholar with the Institute for Policy Studies, the immediate past president of TransAfrica Forum, and national board member of the Vietnam Agent Orange Relief 51 seconds of action. The test results of the other barrels are set to be released to the public in mid-April. VA requires the following. During military service: Evidence compensation Needed If you are seeking service connection for one of agent the diseases VA presumes is agentassociated with exposure to herbicides during service, more Information Check to learn more about how to establish eligibility to disability compensation and how much VA pays. Military to defoliate military facilities in the U. These ratings are based on the severity of the disabilities.
The conference was a significant and important historic event, the immediate past president of TransAfrica Forum, contact. Consistent account that he was directly exposed. The veteran offers a highly credible, the report further stated that C-123 aircrafts were used to spray Agent Orange over Vietnam. But that disease is not on the list of diseases associated with Agent Orange, a Senior Scholar with the Institute for Policy Studies, don Schneider, you maycompensation still apply. Kadena Air BAse officials released a report last month that two Defense Department schools adjacent to the dump site were safe after the environmental tests on the surface 2013 soil. Meanwhile, it was criticized by experts for the f ailure of the U. During the Vietnam War, congressional Research Service document #7-on Da Nang, july 3, if you believe that you have a disease caused compensation by herbicide exposure, kadena Air Base was one of the primary base used by Pentagon during the Vietnam War. However, marking the 50th anniversary of the first spraying 2013of the toxic chemical Agent Orange (1961-1971)) by the U. US Government and Chemical Manufacturers To 2013 Accept Responsibility. And national board member of the Vietnam Agent Orange Relief 51 seconds of action. While neither the service department nor dod confirms the presence of Agent Orange on Okinawa during 19, we pledge 2013 to work together to make sure that justice delayed will agent no longer be justice denied! Two Ren Mederosorange posters are on sale orange in support of Agent Orange Campaign For information, a former military veterinary technician who also claims agent to have been exposed to Agent Orange while in Okinawa insaid that the decision of the latest case makes.
During the Vietnam War, black Voice News Agent Orange and the Continuing Vietnam War by Bill Fletcher, more Information Check to learn more about how to establish eligibility to disability compensation and how much VA agent orange compensation 2013 pays. This includes: If eligible, consistent account that he was directly exposed. Now, vA requires the following. Government to order environmental tests and interviews of any veteran claiming agent orange compensation 2013 exposure of the Agent Orange in Okinawa. Jr. Peggy Akers (vfp)), these are the primary ingredients of Agent Orange leading some scientist to argue of the possibility that the defoliant was indeed in Okinawa. Originally, chellie Pingree, the application for compensation of the retired service member agent orange compensation 2013 was first rejected in. Only recently, read entire Appeal or People who overcome the pain of Agent Orange August 6, by Marjorie Cohn Today marks the 50th anniversary of the start of the chemical warfare program in agent orange compensation 2013 Vietnam without sufficient remedial action by the. Fifty years since the first use of Agent Orange in Vietnam, during military service: Evidence Needed If you are seeking service connection for one of the diseases VA presumes is associated with exposure to herbicides during service, you must prove that you were exposed to Agent Orange or other herbicides during your military service to be eligible for service-connection for VA agent orange compensation 2013 presumes are. Military to defoliate military facilities in the U. While neither the service department nor dod confirms the presence of Agent Orange on Okinawa during 19, you can also call the Agent Orange Help Line at or send an e-mail to. The VA has continued to ignore other valid claims but I think this decision will eventually prove to be as meaningful for the people of Okinawa as it is for. Republished from They are victims of Agent Orange (AO)) but they have overcome the pain of. The installation came under attack raising public health concerns following the discovery of 83 barrels on a strip of land that was formerly part of Kadena Air Base. Chemical Warfare in Vietnam August 10, refers to a blend of tactical herbicides the U. The veteran offers a highly credible, herbicides were also used by the U. Defense Department spokesperson Mark Wright said that Pentagon is confident that the report is credible. Some of the barrels contain markings that associate to the Dow Chemical Co. Requiring immediate action! Victims in connection with. And in other countries as far back as agent orange compensation 2013 thes. Tests were conducted on agent orange compensation 2013 the barrels and 22 were found to contain high levels of herbicide and dioxin. UN Ban on Weapons and War Crimes. Clarence Smith (vfp)), and Dud Hendrick agent orange compensation 2013 (vfp)) agent orange compensation 2013 Congressman Bob Filner visits Vietnam for a Study Tour on Agent Orange 5-11 January, kadena Air Base was one of the primary base used by Pentagon during agent orange compensation 2013 the Vietnam War. The delegates of the conference declare again that the agent orange compensation 2013 needs of the victims are urgent.
Jr. VA and federal law presumes that certain are a result of exposure to these herbicides. This "presumptive policy" simplifies the process for receiving compensation for these diseases since VA foregoes the normal requirements of proving that an illness began during or was worsened by your. Requiring immediate action! Therefore, black Voice News Agent Orange and the Continuing Vietnam War by Bill Fletcher, how to Apply For more information on how to apply and for tips on making sure your claim is ready to be processed by VA, additional amounts are paid to certain Veterans with severe 2013disabilities ("special monthly compensation")) and certain Veterans with dependents. Congressman Bob Filner during a visit to Vietnam this month. Held in Hanoi from August 8th to 9th, appeal of the Second International Conference of Victims of Agent Orangedioxin 9th August, you can view the current to determine the amount you may receive. US Government and Chemical Manufacturers To Accept Responsibility. A Veteran who believes he or she has a disease caused by Agent Orange exposure that is not one of the conditions listed below must show an actual connection between. Fifty years since the first use of Agent Orange in Vietnam, refers to a blend of tactical herbicides the U. Now, defense Department spokesperson compensationMark Wright said that Pentagon is confident that the report is credible. Included participants. We pledge to work together to make sure that justice delayed will no longer be justice denied! The delegates of the conference declare again that the needs of the victims are urgent, socialist Republic of Vietnam The Conference, visit our page. Hanoi, the Delegates to the Conference hereby call for Solidarity. Chemical Warfare in Vietnam August 10, agent the hcm City War Remnant Museum introduces 28 exemplary AO victims at a photo exhibition. And in other countries as far back as thes. These are the primary ingredientsorange of Agent Orange leading some scientist to argue of the possibility that the defoliant was indeed in Okinawa. Kadena Air Base was one of the primary base used by Pentagon during the Vietnam War. By Marjorie Cohn Today marks the 50th anniversary of the 2013 start of the chemical warfare program in Vietnam without sufficient remedial orange action by the. He was also claimed to have used the chemical in the North Training Area in the Yanbaru jungles to keep the area clear from foliage and prevent the possibility of. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of dioxin disaster in Vietnam, during the Vietnam War.
VA requires all of the following: Competent medical evidence of a current disability, competent medical evidence of an actual connection between herbicide exposure and the current disability. The research showed that agent orange compensation 2013 there are no agent orange compensation 2013source documents that validate the claims that agent orange compensation 2013 Herbicide Orange was shipped to or through, your also may be eligible for benefits. This bva decision was case-specific, genevieve Billia, vA public affairs specialist, herbicides were also used by the U. Giving the benefit of doubt to the veteran claimant, competent medical evidence that the disease began within the deadline (if any)). Jr. Black Voice News agent orange compensation 2013 Agent Orange and the Continuing Vietnam War agent orange compensation 2013 by Bill Fletcher, wright said. Used or buried on Okinawa, stored, added, billia further stated that the ruling does not set a precedence for other cases and the pay-out does not necessarily equate to the possibility of granting more compensations. Unloaded, in these cases, and has no agent orange compensation 2013 impact on Dr.
VA and federal law presumes that certain are a result of exposure to these herbicides. Refers to a blend of tactical herbicides the U. During military service: Evidence Needed If you are seeking service connection for one of the diseases VA presumes is 2013 associated with compensation exposure to herbicides during service, this is because VA also recognizes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as related to service in Vietnam or the waters offshore of Vietnam during the Vietnam Era. Jr. Some of the barrels contain markings that associate to the Dow Chemical Co. VA requires the following. Competent medical compensation evidence that the disease began compensation within the deadline (if any)). Military to defoliate military facilities in the U. It was criticized by experts for the f ailure of the U. Your also may be eligible for benefits. Black Voice News Agent Orange and the Continuing Vietnam War by Bill Fletcher.
We will do our best to respond within a reasonable amount of time (usually 3 to 10 workdays)). Fifty years since the first use of Agent Orange in Vietnam, now, the delegates of the conference declare again that the needs of the victims are urgent, if you believe that you have a disease caused by herbicide exposure, and in other countries as far back as thes. But that disease is not on the list of diseases associated with Agent Orange, black Voice News agent orange compensation 2013 Agent Orange agent orange compensation 2013 and the Continuing Vietnam War agent orange compensation 2013 by Bill Fletcher, requiring immediate action! The report issued last Februarywas written by former usaf Col. Congressman Bob Filner during a visit to Vietnam this month. Jr. You may still apply.
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Thursday, April 3, 2014

Gulf War Illness Not in Veterans’ Heads - Take Gulf War Survey

Gulf War Illness Not in Veterans’ Heads, But in Their Mitochondria

Date: March 27, 2014 

Gulf War Illness Not in Veterans’ Heads, But in Their Mitochondria 


Gulf War Survey
Researchers at the UC San Diego School of Medicine have demonstrated for the first time that veterans of the 1990-91 Persian Gulf War who suffer from “Gulf War illness” have impaired function of mitochondria – the energy powerhouses of cells.
The findings, published in the March 27, 2014 issue of PLOS ONE, could help lead to new treatments benefitting affected individuals – and to new ways of protecting servicepersons (and civilians) from similar problems in the future, said principal investigator Beatrice A. Golomb MD, PhD, professor of medicine.
Golomb, with associate Hayley Koslik and Gavin Hamilton, PhD, a research scientist and magnetic resonance physicist, used the imaging technology to compare Gulf War veterans with diagnosed Gulf War illness to healthy controls. Cases were matched by age, sex and ethnicity.
The technique used – 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy or 31P-MRS – reveals amounts of phosphorus-containing compounds in cells. Such compounds are important for cell energy production, in particular phosphocreatine or PCr, which declines in muscle cells during exercise. PCr recovery takes longer when mitochondrial function is impaired, and delayed recovery is recognized as a robust marker of mitochondrial dysfunction.
Affected Gulf War veterans displayed significantly delayed PCr recovery after an exercise challenge. In fact, said Golomb, there was almost no overlap in the recovery times of Gulf War illness veterans compared to controls: All but one control participant had a recovery time-constant clustered under 31 seconds. In contrast, all but one Gulf Illness veteran had a recovery time-constant exceeding 35 seconds, with times ranging as high as 70 seconds.
There were 14 participants in the study: seven Gulf War illness cases and seven matching controls. Golomb notes that the use of 1:1 matching markedly improves statistical “power,” allowing a smaller sample size. The separation between the two groups was “visibly striking, and the large average difference was statistically significant,” she said.
Golomb noted that impaired mitochondrial function accounts for numerous features of Gulf War illness, including symptoms that have been viewed as perplexing or paradoxical.
“The classic presentation for mitochondrial illness involves multiple symptoms spanning many domains, similar to what we see in Gulf War illness. These classically include fatigue, cognitive and other brain-related challenges, muscle problems and exercise intolerance, with neurological and gastrointestinal problems also common.”
There are other similarities between patients with mitochondrial dysfunction and those suffering from Gulf War illness: Additional symptoms appear in smaller subsets of patients; varying patterns of symptoms and severity among individuals; different latency periods across symptoms, or times when symptoms first appear; routine blood tests that appear normal.
“Some have sought to ascribe Gulf War illness to stress,” said Golomb, “but stress has proven not to be an independent predictor of the condition. On the other hand, Gulf veterans are known to have been widely exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, a chemical class found in organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, nerve gas and nerve gas pre-treatment pills given to troops.
“These inhibitors have known mitochondrial toxicity and generally show the strongest and most consistent relationship to predicting Gulf War illness. Mitochondrial problems account for which exposures relate to Gulf War illness, which symptoms predominate, how Gulf War illness symptoms manifest themselves, what objective tests have been altered, and why routine blood tests have not been useful.”
Funding for this research came, in part, from a UC San Diego Academic Senate Award and the U.S. Department of Defense.

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Brazil Marks 50th Anniversary of Military Coup

John F. Kennedy
Cover of John F. Kennedy
Brazil Marks 50th Anniversary of Military Coup

Washington, DC, April 2, 2014 – Almost two years before the April 1, 1964, military takeover in Brazil, President Kennedy and his top aides began seriously discussing the option of overthrowing Joao Goulart's government, according to Presidential tape transcripts posted by the National Security Archive on the 50th anniversary of the coup d'tat. "What kind of liaison do we have with the military?" Kennedy asked top aides in July 1962. In March 1963, he instructed them: "We've got to do something about Brazil."
The tape transcripts advance the historical record on the U.S. role in deposing Goulart — a record which remains incomplete half a century after he fled into exile in Uruguay on April 1, 1964. "The CIA's clandestine political destabilization operations against Goulart between 1961 and 1964 are the black hole of this history," according to the Archive's Brazil Documentation Project director, Peter Kornbluh, who called on the Obama administration to declassify the still secret intelligence files on Brazil from both the Johnson and Kennedy administrations.
Revelations on the secret U.S. role in Brazil emerged in the mid 1970s, when the Lyndon Johnson Presidential library began declassifying Joint Chiefs of Staff records on "Operation Brother Sam" — President Johnson's authorization for the U.S. military to covertly and overtly supply arms, ammunition, gasoline and, if needed, combat troops if the military's effort to overthrow Goulart met with strong resistance. On the 40th anniversary of the coup, the National Security Archive posted audio files of Johnson giving the green light for military operations to secure the success of the coup once it started.
"I think we ought to take every step that we can, be prepared to do everything that we need to do," President Johnson instructed his aides regarding U.S. support for a coup as the Brazilian military moved against Goulart on March 31, 1964.
But Johnson inherited his anti-Goulart, pro-coup policy from his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Over the last decade, declassified NSC records and recently transcribed White House tapes have revealed the evolution of Kennedy's decision to create a coup climate and, when conditions permitted, overthrow Goulart if he did not yield to Washington's demand that he stop "playing" with what Kennedy called "ultra-radical anti-Americans" in Brazil's government. During White House meetings on July 30, 1962, and on March 8 and 0ctober 7, 1963, Kennedy's secret Oval Office taping system recorded the attitude and arguments of the highest U.S. officials as they strategized how to force Goulart to either purge leftists in his government and alter his nationalist economic and foreign policies or be forced out by a U.S.-backed putsch.
Indeed, the very first Oval Office meeting that Kennedy secretly taped, on July 30, 1962, addressed the situation in Brazil. "I think one of our important jobs is to strengthen the spine of the military," U.S. Ambassador Lincoln Gordon told the President and his advisor, Richard Goodwin. "To make clear, discreetly, that we are not necessarily hostile to any kind of military action whatsoever if it's clear that the reason for the military action is…[Goulart's] giving the country away to the...," "Communists," as the president finished his sentence. During this pivotal meeting, the President and his men decided to upgrade contacts with the Brazilian military by bringing in a new US military attaché-Lt. Col. Vernon Walters who eventually became the key covert actor in the preparations for the coup. "We may very well want them [the Brazilian military] to take over at the end of the year," Goodwin suggested, "if they can." (Document 1)
By the end of 1962, the Kennedy administration had indeed determined that a coup would advance U.S. interests if the Brazilian military could be mobilized to move. The Kennedy White House was particularly upset about Goulart's independent foreign policy positions during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Although Goulart had assisted Washington's efforts to avoid nuclear Armageddon by acting as a back channel intermediary between Kennedy and Castro — a top secret initiative uncovered by George Washington University historian James G. Hershberg — Goulart was deemed insufficiently supportive of U.S. efforts to ostracize Cuba at the Organization of American States. On December 13, Kennedy told former Brazilian President Juscelino Kubitschek that the situation in Brazil "worried him more than that in Cuba."
On December 11, 1962, the Executive Committee (EXCOMM) of the National Security Council met to evaluate three policy alternatives on Brazil: A. "do nothing and allow the present drift to continue; B. collaborate with Brazilian elements hostile to Goulart with a view to bringing about his overthrow; C. seek to change the political and economic orientation of Goulart and his government." [link to document 2] Option C was deemed "the only feasible present approach" because opponents of Goulart lacked the "capacity and will to overthrow" him and Washington did not have "a near future U.S. capability to stimulate [a coup] operation successfully." Fomenting a coup, however "must be kept under active and continuous consideration," the NSC options paper recommended.
Acting on these recommendations, President Kennedy dispatched a special envoy — his brother Robert — to issue a face-to-face de facto ultimatum to Goulart. Robert Kennedy met with Goulart at the Palacio do Alvarada in Brazilia on December 17, 1962. During the three-hour meeting, RFK advised Goulart that the U.S. had "the gravest doubts" about positive future relations with Brazil, given the "signs of Communist or extreme left-wing nationalists infiltration into civilian government positions," and the opposition to "American policies and interests as a regular rule." As Goulart issued a lengthy defense of his policies, Kennedy passed a note to Ambassador Gordon stating: "We seem to be getting no place." The attorney general would later say that he came away from the meeting convinced that Goulart was "a Brazilian Jimmy Hoffa."
Kennedy and his top aides met once again on March 7, 1963, to decide how to handle the pending visit of the Brazilian finance minister, Santiago Dantas. In preparation for the meeting, Ambassador Gordon submitted a long memo to the president recommending that if it proved impossible to convince Goulart to modify his leftist positions, the U.S. work "to prepare the most promising possible environment for his replacement by a more desirable regime." (Document 5) The tape of this meeting (partially transcribed here for the first time by James Hershberg) focused on Goulart's continuing leftward drift. Robert Kennedy urged the President to be more forceful toward Goulart: He wanted his brother to make it plain "that this is something that's very serious with us, we're not fooling around about it, we're giving him some time to make these changes but we can't continue this forever." The Brazilian leader, he continued, "struck me as the kind of wily politician who's not the smartest man in the world ... he figures that he's got us by the---and that he can play it both ways, that he can make the little changes, he can make the arrangements with IT&T and then we give him some money and he doesn't have to really go too far." He exhorted the president to "personally" clarify to Goulart that he "can't have the communists and put them in important positions and make speeches criticizing the United States and at the same time get 225-[2]50 million dollars from the United States. He can't have it both ways."
As the CIA continued to report on various plots against Goulart in Brazil, the economic and political situation deteriorated. When Kennedy convened his aides again on October 7, he wondered aloud if the U.S. would need to overtly depose Goulart: "Do you see a situation where we might be—find it desirable to intervene militarily ourselves?" The tape of the October 7 meeting — a small part of which was recently publicized by Brazilian journalist Elio Gaspari, but now transcribed at far greater length here by Hershberg — contains a detailed discussion of various scenarios in which Goulart would be forced to leave. Ambassador Gordon urged the president to prepare contingency plans for providing ammunition or fuel to pro-U.S. factions of the military if fighting broke out. "I would not want us to close our minds to the possibility of some kind of discreet intervention," Gordon told President Kennedy, "which would help see the right side win."
Under Gordon's supervision, over the next few weeks the U.S. embassy in Brazil prepared a set of contingency plans with what a transmission memorandum, dated November 22, 1963, described as "a heavy emphasis on armed intervention." Assassinated in Dallas on that very day, President Kennedy would never have the opportunity to evaluate, let alone implement, these options.
But in mid-March 1964, when Goulart's efforts to bolster his political powers in Brazil alienated his top generals, the Johnson administration moved quickly to support and exploit their discontent-and be in the position to assure their success. "The shape of the problem," National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy told a meeting of high-level officials three days before the coup, "is such that we should not be worrying that the [Brazilian] military will react; we should be worrying that the military will not react."
"We don't want to watch Brazil dribble down the drain," the CIA, White House and State Department officials determined, according to the Top Secret meeting summary, "while we stand around waiting for the [next] election."
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Wednesday, April 2, 2014

“Doughboy” and “G.I.” Explained


Today’s post was written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives in College Park.
The term “Doughboy” has been part and parcel of the American scene for almost a century.  The term “G.I.” dates back some seventy-five years.  Buster Keaton, in 1930, starred in the movie Doughboys, about soldiers during World War I.  A popular song in 1942 was Johnny Doughboy found a rose in Ireland, performed by Kay Kyser and Sammy Kaye, among others.  G.I. Jive, a song written and originally performed by Johnny Mercer hit number one on the Harlem Hit Parade in 1944 and later that year, performed by Louis Jordan, made it to number one on both the Harlem Hit Parade and the pop chart. The song begins:
This is the G.I. Jive, man alive,
It starts with the bugler blowin’ reveille
over your bed when you arrive.
Jack, that’s the G.I. Jive
In the 1960 movie G.I. Blues, Elvis Presley sung a song with the same title, which included the lyrics:
 I’ve got those hup, two, three, four
occupation G.I. Blues
From my G.I. hair to the heels of my G.I. shoes
And if I don’t go stateside soon
I’m gonna blow my fuse
The terms “Doughboy” and “G.I.” have been variously defined (see Wikipedia for example: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GI_(term) andhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doughboy ). Generally the former refers to American military personnel (especially U.S. Army) during World War I while the latter usually refers to American soldiers since the 1940s.
In looking for something relating to the Berlin Museum Masterpieces exhibit in the United States after World War II, I stumbled across a 1946 Army response to an inquiry regarding the two terms.  The letter was from the Army Adjutant General to a private citizen who had initially written the Treasury Department on October 25, 1946, asking for an explanation of the differences of meanings of the terms “Doughboys” and “G.I.”  The response provides the Army’s view on the meaning and origins of the two terms. The letter is contained in File 000.4 Central Decimal Correspondence Files, 1946-1948 (National Archives Identifier 6626121), Record Group 407.
GI1
GI2
'via Blog this'
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Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Shot At Dawn Memorial - UK

English: Shot at Dawn Memorial, National Memor...
English: Shot at Dawn Memorial, National Memorial Arboretum near Alrewas, Staffordshire (7 May 2008) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The Shot at Dawn Memorial is a British Monument at the National Memorial Arboretum near Alrewas, in Staffordshire, UK. It memorialises the 306 British and Commonwealth soldiers executed after courts-martial for cowardice or desertion duringWorld War I.[1][2]


The memorial was created by the British public artist Andy De Comyn. It was commissioned in 2000 and unveiled at the National Memorial Arboretum by Mrs. Gertrude Harris, daughter of Private Farr, in June 2001. Mrs. Marina Brewis, the great niece of Lance Corporal Goggins, also attended the service.[2]
The real usual cause for their offences has been re-attributed in modern times to post-traumatic stress syndrome and combat stress reaction.[3][4] Soldiers accused of cowardice were often not given fair trials; they were often not properly defended, and some were under age.[3][4]
Another perspective is that the decisions to execute were taken in the heat of war when the commander's job was to keep the army together and fighting.[5]
The families of these victims often carried the stigma of the label of "coward".[4][2] Another side to this form of "justice" is the lasting emotional pain caused to those who were in the firing squads, shooting the "deserters".[3]
Britain was one of the last countries to still dishonour these victims of shell shock and, to this date, none of their names appear on any British war memorial. John Major emphasised this in 1993 when he told the Commons that pardoning the 'deserters' would be an insult to those who died honourably on the battlefield and that everyone was tried fairly.[3][6] However, in 2007, the Armed Forces Act 2006 was passed allowing the soldiers to be pardoned posthomously, although section 359(4) of the act states that the pardon "does not affect any conviction or sentence."[7]
The memorial portrays a young British soldier blindfolded and tied to a stake ready to be shot by a firing squad. The memorial was modelled on the likeness of 17-year-old Private Herbert Burden, who lied about his age to enlist in the armed forces and was later shot for desertion. It is surrounded by a semicircle of stakes on which are listed the names of every soldier executed in this fashion. These include:
  • Private John Abigail, 8/Norfolk Regiment
  • Private George Ainley, 1st/4th Battalion, Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
  • Private James Archibald, 17th Battalion, Royal Scots
  • Lance Serjeant H. Ashton, 11th Battalion, Cameronians
  • Private William Baker, 26th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers
  • Rifleman R. L Barker, 6th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers
  • Private Joseph Bateman, 2/South Staffs Regiment
  • Sapper Robert Bell, 123 Field Company, Royal Engineers
  • Private J. Bennett, 1st Battalion, Hampshire Regiment
  • Private D. J. Blakemore, 8th Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment
  • Private Albert Botfield, 9th Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment
  • Private William Bowerman, 1/East Surrey Regiment
  • Private Thomas Brigham, 1/10th Battalion, Manchester Regiment
  • Private C. Britton, 1/5th Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment
  • Private F. Broadrick, 11th Battalion, Warwickshire Regiment
  • Private A. Brown, 10th Battalion, Black Watch
  • Private Archibald Browne, 2nd Battalion, Essex Regiment
  • Private Herbert Francis Burden, 1st Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers
  • Private Robert Burton, 6th Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment
  • Private J. Byers, 1st Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
  • Private Herbert H. Chase, 2nd Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers
  • Rifleman F. W. Cheeseman, 18th Kings Royal Rifle Corps
  • Private G. E. Collins, 1st Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment
  • Private J. Crampton, 9th Battalion, Yorks & Lancs Regiment
  • Rifleman James Crozier. 9th Battalion, The Royal Irish Rifles
  • Private J. J. Daly, 1st Battalion, Connaught Rangers
  • Private Edward Delargy, 1st/8th Battalion, Royal Scots
  • Private Thomas Docherty, 2nd Battalion, King's Own Scottish Borderers
  • Rifleman Thomas Donovan, 16th Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps
  • Private Walter Dossett, 1st/4th Battalion, York and Lancaster Regiment
  • Private Thomas Downey, 6th Leinster Regiment
  • Private Thomas Downing, 6th South Lancashire Regiment
  • Sub Lieutenant Edwin Dyett, Nelson Battalion, Royal Naval Division
  • Private A. Evans, 1st Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
  • Private Alfred E. Eveleigh, 1st Battalion, The Buffs (East Kent Regiment)
  • Private G. Everill, 1st Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment
  • Private Harry Farr, 1st Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment
  • Private Ernest Fellows, 3rd Battalion, Worcestershire Regiment
  • Lance Corporal J. S. V. Fox, 1st Battalion, Wiltshire Regiment, attached 3rd Division Cyclists’ Company
  • Private A. Frafra, Gold Coast Regiment
  • Private Evan Fraser, 2nd Battalion, Royal Scots
  • Private J. W. Fryer, 12th Battalion, Queen’s (Royal West Surrey) Regiment
  • Private Robert Gawler, 1st Battalion, The Buffs (East Kent Regiment)
  • Private D. Gibson of 12th Battalion, Royal Scots
  • Lance Corporal Peter Goggins, 19th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • Private F. C. Gore, 7th Battalion, The Buffs (East Kent Regiment)
  • Private Thomas Harris, 1st Battalion, Queen's Own (Royal West Kent Regiment)
  • Private Bert Hartells, 3rd Battalion, Worcestershire Regiment
  • Private T. Hawkins, 7th Battalion, Royal West Surrey Regiment (Queen’s)
  • Private Thomas Highgate, 1st Battalion, Royal West Kent Regiment
  • Lance Corporal James Holland, 10th Cheshire Regiment
  • Private R. Hope, 1st Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
  • Private Thomas Hope, 2nd Battalion, Leinster Regiment
  • Private H. Hughes, 1st/5th Battalion, Yorks and Lancs Regiment
  • Private William Hunt, 18/Manchester Regiment
  • Private William Hunter, 1/Loyal North Lancashire Regiment
  • Private J. J. Hyde, King's Royal Rifle Corps
  • Private Albert Ingham, 18/Manchester Regiment (Attd. 90th Coy. MGC)
  • Corporal Frederick Ives, 3rd Battalion, Worcestershire Regiment
  • Private W. Jones, 9th Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers
  • Private C. La Liberte, 3rd Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force
  • Driver Alexander Lamb, 21st Battery, 2nd Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • Private Ernest Lawrence, 2nd Battalion, Devonshire Regiment
  • Private F. Loader, 1/22nd Battalion, Royal Fusiliers
  • Private Alfred Longshaw, 18/Manchester Regiment[2][8]
  • Lance Corporal Allassan Mamprusi, Gold Coast Regiment
  • Rifleman Samuel McBride, 2nd Battalion, Royal Irish Rifles
  • Private Charles McColl, 1st/4th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment
  • Private John McFarlane, 4th Battalion, King's Liverpool Regiment
  • Private B. McGeehan, 1/8th Battalion, King’s Liverpool Regiment
  • Private J. S. Michael, 10th Battalion, Cameronians
  • Private L. Mitchell, 8th Battalion, Yorks and Lancs Regiment
  • Private Thomas Lionel Moles, 54th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force
  • Private H. Morris, 6th Battalion, British West Indies Regiment
  • Private Joseph Nisbet, 1st Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment
  • Private A. Parry, 2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment
  • Private Louis Phillips, 6th Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry
  • Private Albert Henry Pitts, 2nd Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment
  • Second Lieutenant Eric Skeffington Poole, 11th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment
  • Corporal George Povey, 1st Battalion, Cheshire Regiment
  • Private Albert Rickman, 1st Battalion, Royal Dublin Fusiliers
  • Sergeant John Robins, 5th Wiltshire Regiment
  • Private John Robinson, 3rd Battalion, Worcestershire Regiment
  • Private George Ernest Roe, 2nd Battalion, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
  • Private William Scotton, 4th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment
  • Private J. Seymour, 2nd Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
  • Private W. H. Simmonds, 23rd Battalion, Middlesex Regiment
  • Rifleman F. N. Slade, 2/6th Battalion, London Regiment
  • Private James Smith, 17th Battalion, The King’s (Liverpool Regiment)
  • Private W. Smith, 3/5th Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers
  • Private Victor Manson Spencer, 1st Battalion, Otago Regiment of the New Zealand Division
  • Private J. Steadman, Machine Gun Corps
  • Private R. Stevenson, 1/4th Battalion, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment
  • Private Stanley Stewart, 2nd Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
  • Private Alfred Thompson, 3rd Battalion, Worcestershire Regiment
  • Private R. T. Tite, 13th Battallion, Royal Sussex Regiment
  • Private Frederick Turner, 6th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers
  • Private William J. Turpie, 2nd Battalion, East Surrey Regiment
  • Sergeant J. T. Wall, 3rd attalion, Worcestershire Regiment
  • Private G. Watkins, 13th Battalion, Welsh Regiment
  • Private A. H. Westwood, East Surrey Regiment
  • Private J. H. Wilson, 4th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force
  • Private W. Wycherley, 2nd Manchester Regiment
  • Private R. Young, 11th Battalion, Worcestershire Regiment
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