Friday, April 17, 2015

PVT Paul E. Riege, 1st Bn, 5th Marines, WWI, Belleau Wood France



PVT Paul E. Riege, a World War I veteran from Spring Valley, OH who fought in France, never received a Purple Heart, though he was wounded in action in 1918. The nonprofit organization Purple Hearts Reunited corrected this error in April 2015 by sending a Purple Heart of the time period to PVT Reige’s grandson Ken Riege of Gallup, NM.
Paul Emerson Riege was born on 07 June 1900, and enlisted on 19 April 1917. He served with the 17th Company, 5th Regiment, 1st Marine Division, United States Marine Corps. Riege arrived in France on 22 August 1917 and fought at the Battle of Belleau Wood. He was wounded in action on 04 October 1918 during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. He also saw action in Aisne, Champagne-Marne, and Aisne-Marne. Interestingly, PVT Riege was listed missing in action (MIA) from 01 September to 14 September 1918, but was medically discharged on 31 May 1919. PVT Riege never received a Purple Heart for his combat-inflicted injuries, despite a letter from the Adjutant General’s Office directing its award.
Then, almost exactly 98 years after PVT Riege enlisted for service, his grandson received a replacement Purple Heart in honor of his loved one’s service. The Purple Heart medal that was sent to Riege’s grandson in New Mexico is a World War I-era Purple Heart that was never engraved. It was donated to Purple Hearts Reunited by a man in South Carolina who wanted to connect the medal with a veteran or military family who wanted it. Purple Hearts Reunited had the medal engraved and shipped to Ken Riege at no cost, to honor his grandfather’s WWI service. Ken himself is a veteran of the U.S. Air Force, and values the medal as a tangible artifact of his grandfather’s military service.
The return of this Purple Heart medal was made possible in part by a grant from the Military Order of the Purple Heart Service Foundation.
PVT Riege PH Award Order

Navy's Oldest Ship Receives Hull Cleaning - USN News



BOSTON (NNS) -- USS Constitution "Old Ironsides" received a waterborne underwater hull cleaning and comprehensive inspection in Boston Harbor, April 6-7 in preparation for its upcoming May 19 dry-docking.

Constitution, the oldest commissioned ship in the U.S. Navy, last docked in 1995 and since then accumulated marine growth has fouled her hull. The Navy's Supervisor of Salvage and Diving (SUPSALV) administers the Navy's hull cleaning program and provides hull cleaning and inspections services through its government contractor, Seaward Marine Services.

Hull cleaning reduces operating fuel expenses, safeguards the environment via reduced greenhouse gas emissions, mitigates the spread of invasive species, and restores the hydrodynamics of the ship to improve its performance. Additionally, once a hull is cleaned, it affords divers the opportunity to assess the condition of the hull, hull coatings, and appendages for any damage prior to dry-docking.

The 217-year-old ship, launched in October 1797, is unique because its wooden hull is covered with thin copper sheets attached with copper nails. Historically, copper sheathing was used to inhibit marine growth and Constitution retains the sheathing for that purpose.

For more news from Naval Sea Systems Command, visit www.navy.mil/local/navsea/.

101 years on, six British World War One soldiers reburied with honour

101 years on, six British World War One soldiers reburied with honour

Six British soldiers who fought and died together on Flanders fields are reburied with full military honours after a Belgian farmer discovered their remains.

The 300-strong congregation strictly observed the two-minute silence
The 300-strong congregation strictly observed the two-minute silence Photo: Eddie Mulholland 
Their names are lost to time, but their sacrifices are not so easily forgotten. On Thursday, on the fields where they fell a century ago, six British soldiers were at last buried with the honour that has eluded them for 101 years. 
The sound of gunfire once again reverberated across Flanders fields, this time signalling not slaughter but a soldiers’ tribute to their forebears. 
The first burial these young men received, in October 1914, was a hasty affair, following their deaths in the speedy retreat from Mons just before the Great Warmorphed into stalemate. 
There they would have remained, robbed not only of their names but their dignity, were it not for a Belgian farmer who unearthed some of their remains while ploughing his fields near Ypres in 2008, and then again in 2010. 
A bugler from the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment sounded Last Post (EDDIE MULHOLLAND)
The Ministry of Defence spent five years trying to establish their identities using historical research to trace their most likely descendants, but DNA tests failed to prove a match. But researchers were able to establish that two of the men served with the King’s Own Royal Lancaster Regiment and two more with the Lancashire Fusiliers. 
On Thursday, then, soldiers from 1st Battalion, the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment and 1st Battalion, the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers returned to the battlefield to accord their fallen forebears full military honours. 
They carried the soldiers to their final resting place, Prowse Point cemetery, in oak coffins draped in the Union flag. There, under the shade of a couple of willow trees, they were reburied as Alison Rose, the British Ambassador to Belgium, gave a reading. 
A 300-strong congregation, including a local military band and a visibly moved party of New Zealand schoolchildren on a battlefield tour, observed a two-minute silence before a lone Kingsman and a single Fusilier recited together: “At the going down of the sun and in the morning/We will remember them.” 
About two or three reburials of First World War soldiers take place each year (EDDIE MULHOLLAND)
A bugler from the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment sounded Last Post. In the afternoon, six fresh headstones were brought to the cemetery, eased into position alongside the 225 stones already marking Commonwealth graves. Roses and primulas, not barren topsoil, will now cover the graves. 
“The soldiers were found together, so they certainly would have been fighting together,” said Carl Liversage, who is in charge of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission’s centenary commemorations in France and Belgium. “They may have enlisted together, they may have come over together; they definitely fought together. And now they are resting in peace together. 
“They are now an integral part of the cemetery alongside every other soldier there. They will be looked after in perpetuity.” 
The reburial was watched by a crowd of New Zealand schoolchildren, visiting on a battlefield trip (EDDIE MULHOLLAND)
The commission carries out two or three such reburials every year, and Flanders farmers are used to turning up remains or unexploded ordinance with their crops.
For now, as their limestone headstones make clear, these six men remain “known unto God”.
But Mr Liversage offered a glimmer of home that they might eventually have a new inscription. “We had a rededication ceremony last year for a headstone after somebody had spent about 10 years researching it,” he said. “It is possible.”

If North Korea Collapses, What Happens to Its WMDs?



This article was first published at 38 North, a blog of the U.S.-Korea Institute at Johns Hopkins SAIS. It is republished with kind permission.
North Korea’s weapons of mass destruction (WMD) pose a number of challenges, particularly how to find and secure those weapons if the regime collapses. This paper will look briefly at 1) North Korea’s nuclear, chemical and biological programs; 2) activities coalition forces might conduct in a collapse scenario; and 3) challenges posed by an operation to eliminate the North’s WMD.
The North Korean Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons Programs
North Korea‘s WMD programs date back decades and are believed to have produced significant stockpiles of weapons. According to open sources, North Korea likely has upwards of 10-16 weapons today and potentially up to 100 by the end of the decade. While it is hard to know the degree of their sophistication, it is a safe assumption that they are low-yield (about 10 kilotons), non-boosted, first generation weapons. Few outside of North Korea have a sense of where the warheads and fissile material are stored, given the scarcity of intelligence information coupled with North Korea’s proclivity to develop hardened and deeply buried facilities and storage depots. This lack of understanding about the locations of nuclear weapons storage will make finding them before they can be employed or moved in a collapse scenario enormously challenging.
The same intelligence limitations apply to the North Korean chemical weapons (CW) program. While our knowledge about North Korea’s CW stockpile remains limited, it is safe to assume that the North has been producing first generation blister, choking, and nerve agents, and conceivable that they have a limited number of more advanced binary agents such as VX or GB. Moreover the North Koreans probably have CW-armed artillery shells and possibly bulk agent positioned north of the demilitarized zone (DMZ). It is also possible that such shells and bulk agent are located elsewhere in the country, which would further complicate any foreign military movements deep into North Korean territory. While it is impossible to ascertain with confidence how much CW Pyongyang has produced, a reasonable guess would put the North’s annual production capability in the low tens of thousands of metric tons of material.
We know next to nothing of the North Korean biological weapons (BW) program, but they could well be producing BW—or even keeping large stockpiles of agent, as did the Soviets. South Korean officials in recent years have speculated that North Korea could produce anthrax or smallpox but there is little evidence that these statements are anything more than speculation.
Eliminating the North Korean WMD Programs 
Should the United States have to engage in post-regime collapse operations or participate in a counter-offensive aimed at neutralizing an incursion of the Korean People’s Army (KPA) into South Korea, there are a number of challenging tasks that coalition forces may have to perform simultaneously. These will include: 1) locating, isolating and eliminating WMD program elements); 2) managing the consequences (to include humanitarian assistance, decontamination, disaster relief, etc.,) of possible WMD attacks; 3) missile defense; 4) locating, seizing and securing weapons depots; 5) rendering constituted WMD safe through dismantlement of the warhead or weapon delivery mechanism; 6) maritime interdiction to prevent leakage off the peninsula; 7) stopping movement of people and materials of concern along land borders; and 8) dismantlement of possible proliferation networks so that materials of concern or even weapons do not move out of the theater in the midst of a chaotic security environment (such an effort will inevitably take time but should begin soon after the onset of hostilities or regime collapse).
Of course, these operations will likely be done in conjunction with other conventional missions that may be occurring simultaneously, such as humanitarian assistance/disaster response, defeating KPA remnants, force protection and a possible non-combatant evacuation of American citizens out of theater — potentially all while wearing equipment to protect coalition forces from chemical attack, should they be operating in a chemically or biologically contaminated environment. In short, trying to do all of this successfully and near simultaneously could prove too much for coalition forces.
While it is unknown how many chemical, biological or nuclear production plants, depots, storage sites and related facilities exist in North Korea, coalition forces will have to secure these facilities in a timely fashion. Failure to do so could enable the use or transfer of these weapons to hostile actors. That mission requires these forces to  identify, locate, secure, disable and destroy WMD programs in non-permissive environments (where an adversary is actively engaged in combat operations) or semi-permissive environments (certain areas of operation are non-contested, but contain pockets of irregular or organized  armed resistance such as was the case during worst days of the Iraqi insurgency).
The Department of Defense’s mission to locate and secure adversary WMD programs began to mature in earnest after the 2003-2005 search for Iraqi WMD. Since then, DOD has updated the concept of operations, force structure and policies accordingly. Should coalition forces execute a WMD-elimination operation on the Korean peninsula, the 8th Army (comprised primarily of the Second Infantry Division) stationed in South Korea likely would request technical forces from the United States Army, such as Nuclear Disablement Teams (the United States has two 11-man teams comprised of Army 52 Nuclear Physics Specialists, Medical Officers, etc.), technical escort units (capable of examining chemical and biological facilities), planners from the U.S. Strategic Command’s (STRATCOM) Standing Joint Force Headquarters Elimination (SJFHQ-E), subject matter experts from across the U.S. government, as well as certain specialized South Korean units to form a Combined Joint Task Force for Elimination (CJTF-E). The CJTF-E would be tasked with executing the WMD-elimination mission.
The CJTF-E’s job would be to go to suspected WMD sites, examine them for additional intelligence (primarily to locate other sensitive WMD-related sites, such as for weapons storage), secure related materials and disable/destroy sensitive program related equipment. North Korean personnel with specialized knowledge would be sent to another location within theater for further debriefing. The CJTF-E almost certainly would be augmented with personnel from across the U.S. government, such as the Departments of Energy, Homeland Security, Justice, Health and Human Services, as well as the Intelligence Community on an as needed basis.
There are limitations on what a Joint Task Force for Elimination can do. There are a large number of unidentified sites in North Korea and, as was noted earlier, the United States and its allies do not know the precise location of key storage facilities. Second, DOD has a very limited number of technical units and experts capable of conducting these operations. Third, the problem of translating technical Korean into English will be a monumentally challenging task given the specialized nature of the language, the sheer number of documents these teams are likely to uncover, and the dearth of American Korean-language speakers.
The most time consuming and manpower intensive operational task of the elimination mission will be exploitation and site characterization. These efforts will require Nuclear Disablement Teams and/or technical escort units to enter a suspected WMD site, detain any personnel encountered, search for documents or media that can provide additional information and conduct a physical survey of the facility in order to locate and identify WMD-related equipment or materials. Personnel, media and documents seized will have to be reviewed, analyzed or debriefed in order to determine not only the nature of the site, but also the location of other heretofore unknown WMD facilities. This process will require Korean-language translators who are conversant in technical aspects of WMD production, and may well be time consuming, repetitive, and by its very nature, extraordinarily challenging.
Moreover, since most sensitive DPRK sites will be heavily guarded, it may be hours, days or even weeks before the CJTF-E can gain access to those sites, whether they come from the air (with an Air Assault brigade), from the sea (with a Marine Air Ground Task Force) or behind ground maneuver forces. As a result, high-demand assets such as Nuclear Disablement Teams or technical escort units may find themselves exploiting a single WMD site for intelligence and therefore unable to move to other high-priority sites for an extended period.
Taking these challenges into account, there are a number of additional problems that could occur in the course of a WMD-elimination operation. To begin with, the United States may not have the required elimination or general purpose forces in theater in order to begin that effort should North Korea collapse quickly. This lack of forces in theater could result in a delayed start to elimination operations and allow the North Korean regime or its remnants time to use WMD against coalition targets with potentially catastrophic impacts. Alternatively, a failure to secure North Korean WMD in a timely fashion could enable regime elements to trade WMD technologies, know-how, materials or even constituted weapons to third parties in exchange for safe passage out of theater. This potential for WMD proliferation could itself trigger an additional crisis of the first order.
Secondly, finding adequate manpower to execute a WMD elimination mission will prove enormously challenging. In addition to the limitations imposed by the finite number of Nuclear Disablement Teams and technical escort units, the sheer number of potential WMD sites will require an enormous amount of general purpose forces to provide site security, transportation, logistics, communications and other critical capabilities. They will need to stay with technical units throughout the exploitation and site characterization phase as well as to prevent sensitive materials from being diverted (as occurred in 2003 with Iraqi weapons and explosive caches). Since even a small site might require as much as 600 men to provide physical security, and large sites such as the Yongbyon nuclear installation far more than that, the United States could quickly find itself unable to provide the necessary manpower.
Of course, not all sites will require ongoing security. Some may be safely abandoned, while others can be entombed through high-explosive detonation, or simply kept under surveillance through the use of air-breathing overhead reconnaissance assets (although these assets are themselves finite resources). However, the sheer number of sites, combined with real limitations in the number of technical units capable of conducting WMD elimination operations, means that manpower-intensive WMD exploitation operations may create conditions in which American forces find themselves unable to secure, characterize, or even locate critical WMD sites of concern. Moreover, the need to expend significant manpower resources and time conducting these operations combined with the bleed off of personnel needed to protect sites of concern, particularly if coalition forces come across large-scale chemical weapons depots north of the DMZ, potentially could impede the movement or even combat the effectiveness of coalition forces while potentially allowing time for the transfer WMD out of theater.
In addition to these very real challenges, there will likely be high-level policy decisions that will have to be addressed during a crisis. Such issues could include: 1) how do allied forces reach high-priority sites in areas beyond their  control; 2) are the United States and its allies willing to make trade-offs between the need to protect the lives of American and coalition forces and the need to secure suspected high-priority sites where nuclear weapons may be stored and which likely will be heavily defended by elite North Korean forces; and 3) since the South Korean Army will constitute the vast majority of ground forces, and therefore will probably secure a number of suspected nuclear sites before American forces arrive, what implications does that hold for the nonproliferation regime, particularly if South Korean units stumble upon North Korean nuclear weapons, technology, or design information?
A Rough Road Ahead
While much of the current discussion on unification of the peninsula rightly focuses on challenging political, economic, and social tasks, the collapse of North Korea will pose a significant security challenge for the United States, South Korea, Northeast Asia, and the international community. A near-term and potentially very significant challenge will be securing Pyongyang’s WMD capabilities. Given uncertainties about the location of a number of critical WMD program elements, the lack of specialists capable of deploying into an unstable and still dangerous WMD environment, the enormity of the operational challenges associated with the elimination mission, and the importance of securing these materials before they are used or proliferated out of theater, a WMD-elimination operation against North Korean assets could prove to be one of the hardest  challenges facing the United States and South Korea. Indeed, the enormity of these tasks and challenges coupled with very significant manpower requirements could prove insurmountable.

16 April 1797: Royal Navy sailors stage the Spithead mutiny




In 1797, as was so often the case, Britain was at war with France. The French were still in the throes of revolution, and any hint that it could spread across the Channel sent terror through the very bones of the British ruling class. Key to keeping the Gallic hordes and their radical ideas at bay was the Royal Navy. But it was getting taken for granted. And its men weren’t happy about it. Sailors’ pay hadn’t increased for some 140 years. It was rarely handed over when it was due, and was often deliberately withheld to discourage desertion. The sick and wounded weren’t paid at all. 

Crews weren’t allowed shore leave when they put in to port. Provisions were appalling, officers were often cruel, and the impressment of unsuitable men – many of them criminals – was damaging to its morale and ability to fight.
And so on this day in 1797, 16 ships of the line refused to put to sea. The men elected delegates to negotiate with the Admiralty.
It was dangerous stuff. Mutiny was punishable by hanging, after all. But all the while, strict discipline was maintained, the men’s loyalty to the king was repeatedly emphasised, and promises were made to put to sea if there was any hint of a threat from the French.
Negotiations continued for several days. Finally, on 23 April, their demands were met, and a royal pardon was issued.
The same fate didn’t befall the mutineers of the Nore anchorage in the Thames estuary a month later, however. There, the authorities took a much sterner line: 30 men were hanged, and many more flogged, imprisoned or sentenced to transportation.  Ben Judge

Russia is Restoring Nuclear Warhead Storage in the Occupied Crimea –Dzhemilev

Russians are working around the clock to restore the storage of nuclear weapons in the Kyzyltash tract near Yalta, told reporters in Paris Mustafa Dzhemilev, the leader of the Crimean Tatar people, vice-agent of the President of Ukraine on the problems of Crimean Tatars, reports Ukrinform.
“Now the Crimea is being redesigned into a powerful military base. According to information we obtained, now renovation works are conducted around the clock on the peninsula to restore the military base storage of nuclear weapons in the Kyzyltash tract near Yalta, “- said Dzhemilev.
According to him, in such a manner part of the territory of Ukraine “reclaims the status of a nuclear state.”
The leader of the Crimean Tatars added that occupation Russian authorities are rapidly developing military sphere on the peninsula.
“If the average salary in the peninsula remains at 8-12 thousand rubles (about 5 thousand hryvnias.), the military are paid 120 thousand rubles (50 thousand hryvnias.)” – he said.
Mustafa Dzhemilev is currently visiting Paris. He also is to appear  at the 196th session of the UNESCO Executive Board.

The Guardian of Naval History Unraveling the Story Behind Each Weapon

The Guardian of Naval History

Unraveling the Story Behind Each Weapon

For some people, collecting weapons is not only a hobby but an obsession. For one staff member at the Naval History and Heritage Command (NHHC) in Washington D.C., it's not only an obsession, but a paid gig.
NHHC boasts a two-level vault that's packed from floor to ceiling, and that doesn't even include their weapons on display at the Naval Museum or on loan to other museums.

"We have approximately 1,200 small arms located here," explained curator Julie Kowalsky from inside the center's vault. "Most of them are functional small arms; they're not de-militarized in any way."

The Navy's weapon collection covers everything someone could imagine, including Japanese Samurai swords, rocket launchers, Gatling guns, grenade launchers, sniper rifles, homemade weapons, antique firearms and diver guns. Also in the collection are extremely rare guns no one will see anywhere else, like prototypes.

But the Navy's collection is not just simply neat weaponry; it's a part of history. With each weapon, comes a story and a reminder of how time has changed and different historical events.

Kowalsky has been a federal employee since 2009. A native of Pontarddulais, Wales, she came to the United States in 2000 with her future husband who was an American working for Lockheed-Martin, in Harrogate, North Yorkshire. She originally started as a volunteer at NHHC in 2004.

The collection started during the Civil War period by Adm. John Dahlgren who was head of the Bureau of Ordinance at the Washington Navy Yard. He was collecting weapons to look into future weapons development for the Navy. Dahlgren also invented some original weaponry of his own, which can be found in the vault Kowalsky oversees and also at the Smithsonian.

"The types of things that we collect are one-of-a-kind weapons that show the evolution of weapons usage in the U.S. Navy and weapons that our allies or our enemies would have used in warfare," said Kowalsky.

When items come in, it's not always easy to identify what they are or where the item has been. In which case, it then becomes Kowalsky's job to find out those things, something she is not only passionate about but also loves doing.

"It's finding a new artifact that maybe hasn't been seen for a while and just exploring and finding out about that for my own personal perspective," said Julie. "I like to work on artifacts from a preventative conservation point of view so that we maintain them for the next generation."

When it comes to conserving artifacts, it's easier said than done. Things as simple as dust will eventually scratch metal while other things like ultraviolet light and humidity will damage textiles and paper. If someone touches a sword without wiping off the finger print, the print will eventually over time become etched into the metal. Not to mention having to conserve for unique aspects of the artifacts like sword handles that are made with shark skin. So if an item is displayed, it has to be in the right conditions. If not, the item risks becoming damaged.

"The most fragile type of artifacts are paper and textiles," said Kowalsky. "Light will damage those artifacts and there's no going back from the damage that's been done to them."

If a uniform fades, there's no such thing as re-dying it back to its original glory. It's gone forever.

Among the challenges of conservation, Kowalsky also has to contend with space restraints. At times, they have to reject taking in some items due to space or the contents of the item. Once they had to reject a World War II life raft first aid kit due to it having morphine in it.

"There's morphine in those kits and morphine is still a class 1 drug, even if it's from World War II," said Kowalsky. "We don't want to take that into the collection because dealing with the morphine is another whole issue of legislation and tracking."

While they may not take everything, condition does not always play a part in whether or not they take in an item. History does not always come neat and clean.

"Even if it's in really poor condition, if it still has some historical value that can aid research then we would ask a conservator to look at it and then stop the degradation, to stabilize the object and then we would just rehouse it and make sure it's stored in a relatively good climate and proper packaging so that nothing worse happened to it and then we can still use it for historical research," said Kowalsky.

While space and proper conditions are a problem, things have improved since Kowalsky first came to NHHC. Making it so that future generations and researchers can enjoy these items and learn where we came from and get inspiration for where we are going.

"The collection is there for researchers to come and have a look at and to learn about the weapons and the ordnance within the collection," said Kowalsky.

Any collection has to be cared for by someone who is passionate. Thankfully, the Navy has Kowalsky; assuring that their collection will be around for many more generations of Sailors and researchers to enjoy.

To donate items, contact NHHC at nhhcurator@navy.mil.

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Gallipoli 100: How the navy helped build the legend of the Anzacs

The Gallipoli campaign was a battle for both land and sea, write David Hastings and Kurt Bayer.





The  Maheno leaves Wellington for the Dardanelles where it was used  as the hospital ship for wounded Anzacs.
The Maheno leaves Wellington for the Dardanelles where it was used as the hospital ship for wounded Anzacs.
The Anzacs fought for seven months on the beaches and in the trenches of Gallipoli's Sari Bair range.
But what tends to be forgotten is that the World War I campaign began as a naval battle which continued in the surrounding seas from April to December, 1915.
The original strategy was for the British and French navies to blast their way through the Dardanelles.
Their expected victory would then be consolidated by landing a 70,000-strong army - made up of British, French, Indian and Gurkha troops, as well as the Anzacs.
On March 18, 1915 - a month before the landings at Anzac Cove and Cape Helles - the plan went into action when a fleet of 12 British and French battleships sailed into the narrows with all guns blazing. The attack ended in disaster when four of the ships were knocked out by mines and Turkish shore artillery.
After this failure, General Sir Ian Hamilton - who had been appointed commander-in-chief of the army only the week before - recommended a shift in emphasis, with the army in the leading role. What he had in mind was nothing less than a full-scale landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula to open the way for the navy.
It was just over five weeks between Hamilton's decision and the first Anzacs setting foot on the peninsula as part of what was, at the time, the biggest opposed landing in history.
All of the troops were landed ashore by the Royal Navy, which was littered with New Zealand seamen.
Michael Wynd, researcher at the National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy, says young midshipmen - many aged 15, 16, and 17 - manned small steam boats that towed rowboats on to the beaches.
Ammunition and supplies followed, says naval historian Gerry Wright, while casualties were uplifted by the navy and evacuated, initially to the Greek island of Lemnos, 80km away, where the Royal Naval Air Service and Royal Flying Corps were also based.
The troops took great comfort from knowing battleships and cruisers were giving them artillery support, especially HMS Queen Elizabeth, a state of the art super dreadnought known as "Lizzie".
"You should hear Old Lizzie speaking with her 15-inch guns," wrote Private William Rhodes of the Auckland Infantry Battalion. "You can hear shots flying along the valleys long after the gun is fired, and then a terrific smash."
The guns of the battleships kept the Turks honest in their trenches, pounding the enemy lines. However, they were also blamed for killing some of their own men in friendly fire tragedies. The most high profile case was the death of the legendary New Zealand leader Lieutenant Colonel William George Malone.
After the initial bungled assault on Chunuk Bair on August 7 resulted in horrific casualties for the Auckland Infantry Battalion, Malone refused orders from above to continue the attack in daylight.
Instead, he waited until nightfall to press on, and in the early hours of August 8, supported by the 7th Battalion of the Gloucesters and by extensive artillery and naval fire, succeeded in capturing Chunuk Bair with relatively little resistance.
That night, while fighting off ferocious Turkish counterattacks, Malone was killed in his headquarters trench by friendly fire, either from supporting artillery or naval gunfire.







The navy's contribution to the Anzac story has been greatly underplayed over the years, Mr Wynd believes.
"While we focus on this tiny, little Anzac Cove, we forget the French are fighting in their own area, and the British are at Cape Helles, and you've got this huge logistical train supporting them that is run by the Royal Navy," he said.
"The fact that the Royal Navy had control of the sea enabled the campaign to continue as it did. Unfortunately, they could only do so much in influencing the campaign on land, but at least they provided some much-needed protection at sea."
But the British Navy did not rule the waves unchallenged. German U-boats exacted a heavy toll, sinking three battleships including the Triumph off Gaba Tepe, which was witnessed by the troops looking down from the heights.
Even greater shocks were in store when another submarine torpedoed the supply ship Marquette, which was transporting ammunition and the No1 New Zealand stationary hospital from Alexandria to Salonika in Greece. Ten of the 36 New Zealand nurses on board died when the ship went down.
Letters published in the Herald captured the drama and shock of both sinkings. Chaplain Major William Grant witnessed the death throes of the Triumph.
"It was a pitiful sight. Many things happened all at once ... The battleship siren gave what to our excited imagination seemed to be a scream of mortal agony. She was like a helpless, wounded animal, hit in a vital part. Steam began to pour in a great volume from her funnel, and in a minute a list to starboard was distinctly visible," he wrote.
"Slowly, but surely, the great battleship was canting over on her beam. Happily, there was no explosion as she went over ...
"The ship made the final plunge quietly, going down by the head, 15 minutes after she had turned turtle.
"It seemed to some of us that a man went down with her, standing on the propeller-shaft, between the hull and the propeller. Now a few bubbles mark the spot where, less than half an hour ago, lay a battleship."
Nurse Jeanne Sinclair gave a first-person account of the moment the Marquette was torpedoed and how she survived in the water for seven hours before she was rescued.
"We got into our boat and it reached the sea, but was full of water. Then a much larger boat was lowered on top of and I think that [it] killed some of the others.
"We floated with boards, lifebuoys, and anything we could catch, for seven hours ...
"It was dreadful to see other men going whitey-yellow, and then blue around the nose, mouth and eyes, and a little later going off. We took turns at hanging on to them to try and keep them going."

Beacon for wounded

Throughout the bloody Gallipoli campaign, the New Zealand hospital ship Maheno sat in the Aegean Sea. It carried hundreds of wounded Anzac soldiers back to hospitals in Egypt.
After the withdrawal from Gallipoli in late 1915, the 1905-built steamship collected the wounded of all nationalities from the major battlefields of France and transported them to Britain for treatment.
After the war, the Maheno commuted between Australia and New Zealand. It was sold to Japanese buyers in 1935 but ran aground off Fraser Island, off Queensland, where the rusted hulk remains.
A bell was saved from the wreck and donated to Maheno School in North Otago in 1967 by the ship's owners, the Union Steam Ship Company of Dunedin.
Next week, a group of year 7-8 students from the school will travel with the bell to Fraser Island for a special commemorative Anzac Day service.
The bell will return home with the children.

Five NZ seamen killed

Five NZ seamen were killed at Gallipoli, according to naval historian Gerry Wright, who researched 80 New Zealand naval World War I casualties for his book, For King and Country, which is being published this month.
Flight Sub Lieutenant Leslie Henry Brett
From Devonport, Auckland, he joined the army in 1909 and went to German Samoa in 1914. He trained in the UK as a pilot in the Royal Naval Air Service. 





Flight sub Lieutenant Leslie Henry Brett.
Flight sub Lieutenant Leslie Henry Brett.


While flying over Mudros, Lemnos, on July 22, 1915, he spun out of control and crashed. He is buried in East Mudros Military Cemetery.
Lieutenant Commander Herbert Clyde Evans
Born in Oamaru. He joined the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve in October 1914 and was posted to the Nelson Division of the Royal Naval Division (RND). 





Lieutenant Commander Herbert Clyde Evans
Lieutenant Commander Herbert Clyde Evans


The division was sent to Gallipoli and on June 4 a midday attack over open land was launched by 70 officers and 1900 men of the RND. After 45 minutes only five officers and 900 men were left standing. Herbert is buried at Skew Bridge Cemetery, Cape Helles.
Temporary Sub Lieutenant Oscar Freyberg
Elder brother of Bernard Freyberg, Oscar joined the Royal Navy in December 1914. He was appointed to the Collingwood Division of the RND as Commanding Officer, B Company, 1st Platoon. Arriving off Gallipoli on May 31, the division landed at Cape Helles. 





Temporary Sub Lieutenant Oscar Freyberg.
Temporary Sub Lieutenant Oscar Freyberg.


Four days later during the third battle of Krithia, the sailors were obstructed by bodies and stretcher bearers and there was heavy loss of life. Oscar was one of them. He was buried where he fell in an unmarked grave.
Lieutenant Commander Edward James McBarnet
Born in Wellington, he joined the Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) and served in the Boer War. Called up in October 1914, he was appointed to the battleship HMS Albion. Off Gallipoli on the night of July 6, he led a party ashore at Suvla Bay. Injured, he was evacuated to Mudros then Alexandria where he died on August 16, 1915. He is buried at the Alexandria Military and War Memorial Cemetery.
Engineer Lieutenant Richmond Harrold Newsham
Born in Rangiora, he joined the Merchant Service in 1911. On the outbreak of hostilities he joined the RNR and was deployed to Gallipoli. He was aboard the minesweeper HMS Clacton when she was torpedoed. Newsham drove the engines full astern to beach the vessel but it sank and he drowned. An inquiry praised his efforts to save the vessel.

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