Saturday, November 28, 2015

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day | 74th Anniversary Commemoration

http://www.pearlharborevents.com/

Event Schedule


Please note: Unless otherwise indicated, events are open to the public. Times listed are in Hawaii Standard Time.

Tora! Tora! Tora! After Dark in the Park
Date: Saturday, Nov. 28, 2015
Time: 6 p.m. – 9 p.m.
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Theater, Theaters #1 & #2
Tora! Tora! Tora!Join us for a free special showing of the acclaimed film Tora! Tora! Tora! in its new director’s cut in high definition which includes new footage added to the film. This remarkable motion picture was produced by 20th Century Fox and was filmed here in Hawaii and Japan. Following the showing, a group discussion on the making of this motion picture and its impact on the interpretation of the attack on Pearl Harbor will take place.
Note: Bookstore will be open until 8 p.m., with a 10% discount on the Tora! Tora! Tora! DVD for sale. The snack shop will be open through the film’s intermission.

Live Webinar
Date: Tuesday, Dec. 1, 2015
Time: 8 a.m. HST; noon CST
Location: Online via Adobe Connect
Join the National WWII Museum and the WWII Valor in the Pacific National Monument to commemorate the anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor through this special, live webinar. Travel virtually to New Orleans, Louisiana, for behind the scenes access of the Museum’s newest gallery, Campaigns of Courage: Road to Tokyo, officially opening later in the month. Explore Pearl Harbor resources and artifacts that tell the story of the “day that will live in infamy.” Next students will venture to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, for an up close encounter of the USS Arizona Memorial with National Park Service educators. Learn how the park remembers the historic anniversary every year and preserves the stories of the attack for visitors from across the globe. Hear firsthand testimony from a witness of the attack and discover how this one day forever changed our country’s history. Classrooms participating live will have the opportunity to ask questions of the Museum and Park Educators. Teachers will receive curriculum materials related to Pearl Harbor after registering. Space is limited — register today!

Marine Forces Pacific Band Performance
Date: Wednesday, Dec. 2, 2015
Time: 8:45 a.m. – 10 a.m.
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Lanai
The National Park Service will introduce the Marine Forces Pacific Band by presenting a short interpretive program on the role of the U.S. Marine Corps during the attack. The attack sites include Ewa Mooring Mast Field, Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay, and the ships and Marine Barracks at Pearl Harbor. Performance will follow.

Air Force Band of the Pacific Performance
Date: Thursday, Dec. 3, 2015
Time: 8:45 a.m. – 10 a.m.
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Lanai
The National Park Service will introduce the Air Force Band of the Pacific by presenting a short interpretive program on the role of the U.S. Army Air Force (Hawaiian Air Force) during the attack on Oahu with stories related to the attacks on Hickam, Wheeler and Bellows Fields. Performance will follow.

Army 25th Infantry Division Military Band Performance
Date: Friday, Dec. 4, 2015
Time: 8:45 a.m. – 10 a.m.
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Lanai
The National Park Service will introduce the Army 25th Infantry Division Band by presenting a short interpretive program on the role of the U.S. Army during the attack on December 7th, relating key sites of conflict at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter. Performance will follow.

Afternoon in the Park: Cultural Resources Year in Review
Date: Friday, Dec. 4, 2015
Time: 4 p.m. – 5 p.m.
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Theater
USS Arizona under waterJoin Scott Pawlowski, Chief of Cultural Resources, for an inside look into the new underwater world of 3-D scanning and photography of the sunken remains of the USS Arizona. We will share a number of key cultural program highlights that occurred in 2015.

After Dark in the Park: An Evening with Professor David Kennedy, December 7 Keynote Speaker
Date: Friday, Dec. 4, 2015
Time: 6:30 p.m. – 7 p.m. – Book signing of Freedom from Fear
7:15 p.m. – 8:45 p.m. – Program
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Theater
freedom-from-fear-bookInside the Historian’s Library: This program will explore through interview the art and skill sets of writing and interpreting history. The program is modeled in the style of Inside the Actors Studio. Audience participation is welcome through a question and answer session. Join us for an exclusive insight into the writing of the Pulitzer Prize-winning book, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Great Depression and War, 1929-1945.
Note: Bookstore and snack shop will be open until 7 p.m.

International Plastic Modelers Society Pearl Harbor Model Display
Date: Saturday, Dec. 5, 2015
Time: 8 a.m. – 4 p.m
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center, Education Building, Classroom
The local chapter of International Plastic Modelers Society will have a free public display of ships, planes and vehicles related to those used during the attack on Oahu and Pearl Harbor. Expert modelers will share the history and techniques used to build these scale model masterpieces.

Pacific Fleet Band Performance
Date: Saturday, Dec. 5, 2015
Time: 8:45 a.m. – 10 a.m.
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Lanai
The National Park Service will introduce the Pacific Fleet Band by presenting a short interpretative program on the role of the U.S. Navy during the attack on Oahu, Naval Air Station Pearl Harbor, and Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay. Performance will follow.

International Plastic Modelers Society Pearl Harbor Model Display
Date: Sunday, Dec. 6, 2015
Time: 8 a.m. – 2 p.m
Location: Pearl Harbor Visitor Center, Education Building, Classroom
The local chapter of International Plastic Modelers Society will have a free public display of ships, planes and vehicles related to those used during the attack on Oahu and Pearl Harbor. Expert modelers will share the history and techniques used to build these scale model masterpieces.

Blackened Canteen Ceremony
Date: Sunday, Dec. 6, 2015
Time: 7 a.m. – 8:30 a.m.
Location: USS Arizona Memorial
This ceremony is co-hosted by the National Park Service and the Pacific Aviation Museum. Dr. Hiroya Saguno has been conducting this act of reconciliation with the National Park Service at the USS Arizona Memorial for the last 20 years. The blackened canteen is a recovered relic from a B-29 bomber that collided with another B-29 over the city of Shizuoka, Japan in 1945. Twenty-three American airmen were killed. The American dead were buried among the Japanese citizens of Shizuoka who were killed during the bombing raid. At the Memorial, prayers will be extended for the dead and an offering of peace will be displayed by the pouring of whiskey from the canteen into the hallowed waters of Pearl Harbor.
Private ceremony – not open to the public

Ewa Mooring Mast Field Commemoration
Date: Sunday, Dec. 6, 2015
Time: 10 a.m.
Location: Ewa Field, across from Hawaiian Railway Museum, West Oahu
Join members of the local community and veterans for the annual observance of the attack on Ewa Mooring Mast Field, which was defended by the U.S. Marines. The ceremony honors those who were killed that day, both Marines and civilians.

USS Utah Memorial Sunset Service
Date: Sunday, Dec. 6, 2015
Time: 5 p.m. – 6 p.m.
Location: USS Utah Memorial – Ford Island
USS Utah Memorial Sunset Ceremony honors the loss of the USS Utah (AG-16) and 58 of her crew. The USS Utah was the first ship torpedoed in the attack on the Pacific Fleet. Struck by two torpedoes, she capsized and sank within 12 minutes. Ceremony is open to those with base access and their sponsored guests.
Private ceremony – not open to the public

USS Arizona Memorial Interfaith Prayer Service & Floral Tribute
Date: Monday, Dec. 7, 2015
Time: 6:15 a.m.
Location: USS Arizona Memorial
The National Park Service and U.S. Navy will host an Interfaith Prayer Service and Floral Tribute aboard the USS Arizona Memorial with prayers offered by a military chaplain, Japan Religious Committee for World Federation, and other invited religious groups.
Private ceremony – not open to the public

Live Stream of the National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day Commemoration
Date: Monday, Dec. 7, 2015
Time: 7 a.m. – 5 p.m.
Location: Online
World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument invites you to join us on Dec. 7th as we live stream the National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day Commemoration, marking 74 years since the Pearl Harbor attack. The live stream includes three live events with 10 hours of educational and historical programming and begins at 7 a.m. Hawaii Standard Time (HST). This will include the live and interactive 74th anniversary commemoration, with park educators and volunteers standing by to answer your questions in a live chat; a live broadcast of the USS Oklahoma Ceremony; and a very special live broadcast from the USS Arizona Memorial as Pearl Harbor Survivor Joseph Langdell is interred back to the ship. For a complete schedule, click here.

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
Date: Monday, Dec. 7, 2015
Time: 7:45 a.m. – 9:15 a.m.
Location: Kilo Pier, Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam
Flag raising on Arizona MemorialThe National Park Service and the United States Navy will co-host the 74th commemoration of the attack on Pearl Harbor. This year’s ceremony will feature Pulitzer Prize-winning historian David Kennedy as the keynote speaker. Open to the public.
Those with base access and their sponsored guests may enter through Nimitz or Makalapa Gate and may park in general parking areas near Kilo Pier.
The general public is required to park at Aloha Stadium with free ADA shuttle transportation to Kilo Pier from 6 a.m. to 7:15 a.m. with return shuttles to Aloha Stadium after the ceremony, from 10 a.m. to noon.
Due to strict security measures, guests are not allowed to bring handbags, purses, camera bags or other items that offer concealment to the ceremony. No bag storage will be available, so please plan accordingly. Small personal cameras, cell phones, wallets, and bottled water are allowed.

Events to commemorate 74th anniversary of Pearl Harbor remembrance


Events to commemorate 74th anniversary of Pearl Harbor remembrance

Navy Region Hawaii and the National Park Service have scheduled a series of upcoming events to observe the 74th anniversary of Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day with the theme “Pathway to Reconciliation — From Engagement to Peace.” Events include:
• The National Park Service and the United States Navy will co-host the 74th commemoration of the attack on Pearl Harbor from 7:45 to 9:15 a.m. Dec. 7 at Kilo Pier, Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus and historian David Kennedy will give the principal addresses. Those with base access and their sponsored guests may enter through Nimitz or Makalapa Gate and may park in general parking areas near Kilo Pier. The general public is required to park at Aloha Stadium with free ADA shuttle transportation to Kilo Pier from 6 a.m. to 7:15 a.m. with return shuttles to Aloha Stadium after the ceremony, from 10 a.m. to noon.
• A live stream of the National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Commemoration will be held online from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. Dec. 7. The live stream includes three live events with 10 hours of educational and historical programming and begins at 7 a.m. (Hawaii Standard Time.)
• The 15th Wing will host a remembrance ceremony at the Atterbury Circle historic flagpole at 7:55 a.m. Dec. 7 to honor the 189 killed and 303 wounded during the attacks at Hickam Field. The ceremony is open to those with base access and their sponsored guests.
• Due to ongoing ceremonies throughout the day public programs on Dec. 7 to the USS Arizona Memorial will operate on a special schedule. The first public program will begin at 11 a.m. with the last program at 2 p.m.
• A ceremony from 1:30 to 2:30 p.m. Dec. 7 at the USS Oklahoma Memorial on Ford Island will honor and commemorate the loss of the USS Oklahoma (BB-37) and 429 of its crew. Members of the public who wish to attend the ceremony may catch a free shuttle departing every 15 minutes from the USS Bowfin Submarine Museum & Park, which is adjacent to the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center.
Other events leading up to the Dec. 7 ceremonies include:
• A free special showing of the film “Tora! Tora! Tora” will be shown at an After Dark in the Park event from 6 to 9 p.m. Saturday at the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center, theaters one and two. The film will be shown in its new director’s cut in high definition, which includes new footage added to the film.
• A live webinar will be held at 8 a.m. (Hawaii Standard Time) Dec. 1 online via Adobe Connect. The National World War II Museum and the WWII Valor in the Pacific National Monument will commemorate the anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor through this special, live webinar.
• The Marine Forces Pacific Band will perform from 8:45 to 10 a.m. Dec. 2 at the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center lanai.
• The Air Force Band
• The Army 25th Infantry Division Military Band will perform from 8:45 to 10 a.m. Dec. 4 at the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center lanai.
• An Afternoon in the Park event will be held from 4 to 5 p.m. Dec. 4 in the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Theater. Guests can join Scott Pawlowski, chief of cultural resources, for an inside look into the new underwater world of 3-D scanning and photography of the sunken remains of the USS Arizona. The event will discuss a number of key cultural program highlights that occurred in 2015.
• An After Dark in the Park event featuring an evening with Professor David Kennedy will be held from 6:30 to 7 p.m. Dec. 4 at the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center Theater. The event will include a book signing for the Pulitzer Prize-winning book, “Freedom from Fear” from 7:15 to 8:45 p.m.
• The Pacific Fleet Band will perform from 8:45 to 10 a.m. Dec. 5 at Pearl Harbor Visitor Center lanai.
From 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Dec. 5 and 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Dec. 6 at the Pearl Harbor Visitor Center education building classroom, the local chapter of International Plastic Modelers Society will have a free public display of ships, planes and vehicles related to those used during the attack on Oahu and Pearl Harbor.
• An Ewa Mooring Mast Field Commemoration will begin at 10 a.m. Dec. 6 at Ewa Field, across from the Hawaiian Railway Museum, West Oahu. Members of the local community and veterans will participate in the annual observance of the attack on Ewa Mooring Mast Field, which was defended by the U.S. Marines. The ceremony honors those who were killed that day, both Marines and civilians.
For complete information, visit http://www.pearlharborevents.com.

Hunting Hitler Part IV: The Bunker (Afternoon, April 30) Posted on November 27, 2015 by Daniel


Hunting Hitler Part IV: The Bunker (Afternoon, April 30)

Today’s post was written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Archivist at the National Archives at College Park. This is the fourth blog in a multi-part series.
On April 30, in his bunker, Adolf Hitler lunched with his secretaries Gertrude Junge and Frau Gerda Christian and the vegetarian cook Fraulein Constanze Manzialy from 1pm till 2pm. Eva Braun did not join them. During the meal Hitler appeared calm and under control and told the women this was the last time they would eat together. Little of importance was said and there was no mention of the impending suicide. [1]
According to Bullock, Hitler was an opportunis...
According to Bullock, Hitler was an opportunistic adventurer devoid of principles, beliefs or scruples. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
After lunch Junge found a room where she could sit down and smoke a cigarette. Then she went to Braun’s private quarters and found her sorting out and preparing to give away most of her belongings as final gifts. She gave Junge her most valuable fur, saying "here’s a present for next winter and your life after the war. I wish you all the luck in the world. And when you put it on, always remember me and give my very best to our native Bavaria-das schoene Bayern." (Bavaria the beautiful). Then Junge visited Frau Magda Goebbels, who was quite upset about the fate of her children [that she planned to poison, rather than have them fall into Russian hands].[2]
Hitler, meanwhile, after lunch, met with Martin Bormann. Bormann emerged into the antechamber from Hitler’s study and went straight up to Otto Guensche and told him that Hitler and Braun wanted to bring their lives to an end that day. Their bodies were to be drenched in petrol and burned in the garden of the Chancellery. That was Hitler’s categorical order. Under no circumstances should his body fall into Russian hands. Bormann asked Guensche to make sure that everything was made ready for the burning of the bodies and to make sure the bodies were burned. Guensche said he would take care of things. Shortly after getting the instructions from Bormann, Hitler came out of his room and told Guensche that he would now shoot himself and that Braun would also depart this life. He did not want to fall into the hands of the Russians either alive or dead. The bodies were to be burnt. He wished that nothing should remain of himself, so that the Russians could not desecrate his body or display it in any way. Hitler charged Guensche with the necessary preparations. The way he expressed it, Guensche would be personally responsible for this. Guensche assured Hitler that he would carry out his orders. [3]
A few minutes later Johann Rattenhuber, and Hitler’s personal pilots, Hans Baur and George Betz, made their way, distraught, into the antechamber. They had just run into Bormann and learned from him that Hitler wanted to take his own life. Now they assailed Guensche with questions. He was just going to answer when the door opened and Hitler came out. Rattenhuber, Baur, Guensche, and Betz gave a Nazi salute. Hitler did not react but in a tired voice merely asked them to come closer. Hitler said "I have ordered that I am to be burned after my death. Make sure that my order is carried out to the letter. I will not have it that they take my body back to Moscow to exhibit in a cabinet of curiosities." Hitler gave a lethargic gesture of farewell with his right arm and turned round and disappeared behind his study door. [4]
But Hitler then summoned Baur and Betz to his quarters. They entered the small study. Hitler clasped Baur’s hand with both of his and said in an emotional voice, "Baur, I’d like to bid you farewell!" Hitler told him that "My generals have betrayed me and sold me out, my soldiers don’t want to go on, and I cannot go on!" Baur again tried to convince Hitler that he could still fly him to Argentina, Japan, Japanese-held Manchukuo in Asia, or to friendly Arabs. But Hitler shook his head and explained that if he went to Berchtesgaden or to join Adm. Karl Doenitz in Flensburg, he would be in the same situation again within two weeks. According to Baur, Hitler said, "I will stand or fall with Berlin. A person must have the courage to suffer the consequences of his actions. I will take my own life, today!" Hitler thanked Baur for his long years of service and then presented him, as a gift, his favorite portrait of Frederick the Great by Anton Graf. It was the painting that Baur had carried from one headquarters to another during the war. [5]
Meanwhile Guensche began carrying out Hitler’s and Bormann’s orders. Around 230pm he called Erich Kempka (Hitler’s long-time chauffeur and head of the motor pool), who was living in the bunker next to the Chancellery garage, and asked him to bring ten jerricans (a German petrol-can contained 4.5 gallons) of petrol to the Fuehrer bunker immediately and to leave it in readiness at the emergency exit to the garden behind the Chancellery, and then report to him. To Kempka’s question as to why the petrol was needed, Guensche replied that he could not tell him over the phone. Kempka protested that it would be difficult to find so large a quantity at such short notice, but was told that it must be found. Ultimately he found most of what had been requested and it was quickly delivered to the designated spot.[6]
Soon afterwards Guensche, not wanting any casual observer to witness the final scene, ordered the SS men of the bodyguard and the Security Service who occupied the little room by the emergency exit to vacate the room and find another place. He even ordered the sentries who stood by the armor-plated door which led from the stairway to the emergency exit to go back into the bunker. Just one man, SS-Untersturmfuehrer Hofbeck, did Guensche leave by the emergency exit with the order to let no one pass. Then Guensche went into the hall of the bunker and took up his position by the antechamber door. His watch read 310pm. [7]
The final goodbyes came about 315pm, when Hitler and Braun made their last appearance in the main corridor of the lower Bunker, to say farewell to what was left of the Reich Chancellery Group. Present were Joseph Goebbels, Bormann, Hans Krebs, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Walter Hewel, Hans-Erich Voss, Dr. Haase, Rattenhuber, SS Staf. Hoegl, Heinz Linge, Guensche, Frau Christian, Frauelein Else Krueger, Frauelein Manzialy, and Werner Naumann. He shook hands with each person and apparently, in a weak voice, mumbled something to some of them. While Hitler was saying his final goodbyes, Guensche found Junge and told her that Hitler wanted to say goodbye to her. She met him in the central corridor. He shook her hand. Junge said "it seemed as if he were not looking at me…I had the feeling he was not really seeing me." He said a few words which she did not understand, but thought it was "All the best," or something like that. Then Braun, very much composed, took leave of the gathering. She embraced Junge and said "see to it that you manage to get through to Munich and give my love to Bavaria." Hitler and Braun then retired to Hitler’s study.[8]
After speaking with Hitler and Braun, Junge, not wanting to be present during the suicides, not wanting to see the corpses, went quickly to the upper bunker where the Goebbels’ six children were playing. She occupied herself with the children, getting something for them to eat and calming them. [9]
Meanwhile, Guensche continued making arrangements. He contacted Hoegl, Schaedle, Lindloff, Reiser, and perhaps another officer or two of Hitler’s escort commando and had them posted in the upper Bunker. Their imminent task, he told them, would be to carry the two corpses out of the lower Bunker outside into the garden. Guensche then cleared the lower part of the Fuehrerbunker of all persons not belonging to the immediate circle and put a guard on the staircase leading to the upper part of the bunker with orders not to let anyone in any more. He gave the same order to Criminal Secretary Hofbeck, who was standing guard on the garden exit. He then returned and stationed himself directly before the door to the Hitler apartment to stand guard.[10]
A little later, Braun came out of Hitler’s study into the small antechamber. She looked sad as she gave Linge her hand and said, "Goodbye, Linge. I hope that you get away from Berlin. If you run into my sister Gretl, don’t tell her how her husband died." After thanking him for everything he had done for Hitler, she went to Frau Goebbels, who was in her husband’s room, where she had remained all day, agonizing over the impending death of her children. A few minutes later Braun left Goebbels’s room and went to the telephone exchange, where Guensche was to be found. She said to him, "Please tell the Fuehrer that Frau Goebbels has asked him to come to see her one more time." Depending upon the sources, either Hitler went to Dr. Goebbels’ room to see Frau Goebbels or she was able to enter Hitler’s study to talk to him. In either case she begged Hitler not to take his life but escape to Berchtesgaden. Hitler said he had no other recourse than committing suicide and refused to discuss the matter further. He then thanked her for her commitment and services. Sobbing and trembling, she then left the room, walked past her husband in the corridor without speaking and went to the upper Bunker. Hitler then turned to Dr. Goebbels, who begged Hitler briefly to allow the Hitler Youth to take him out of Berlin. Hitler responded brusquely "Doctor, you know my decision. This is no change! You can of course leave Berlin with your family." Goebbels replied that he would not do so. He intended to stay in Berlin and die there. Hitler then said to him, "I entrust you with the responsibility to see that our corpses are burned immediately." Hitler then shook his hand, and returned to his room, where he was soon joined by Braun, who said goodbye to Guensche on her way back from Dr. Goebbels’ room. It was about 340pm when Guensche took up position in front of Hitler’s door.[11]
Before Hitler entered the room, Linge asked Hitler if he might say goodbye to him and ask if Hitler had any orders for him. Hitler said "Linge, I am going to shoot myself now. You know what you have to do." Hitler then told him that "I have given orders to break out. Try to fight your way through to the west in small groups." Either at this point, or perhaps earlier in the afternoon, Hitler had told Linge to take charge of things immediately after his death and it was he who was to give the word when to enter the death room. Linge gave the Nazi salute, they shook hands, and as Hitler entered the room he told Linge to wait at least ten minutes and then to enter if he had heard no sound. Linge lost his composure completely and raced up all the steep steps of the emergency-exit staircase, and out into the courtyard, where he ran into sharp artillery fire. Then, just as promptly, he ran back down the steps, speechless and wild-eyed. He then took up a position near Guensche who was guarding the door. [12]
Meanwhile, Arthur Axmann, head of the Hitler Youth came to the bunker to see the Goebbels. Dr. Goebbels told him that at that moment Hitler had already retired to his room to commit suicide along with Braun. Axmann desired to bid Hitler a personal farewell, but Guensche told him the Führer would admit nobody and refused to open the door. [13]
Axmann then joined with Krebs, Burgdorf, Bormann, Naumann, Rattenhuber, Stumpfegger, Hewel, and Goebbels in the conference room. They talked about Hitler’s saying goodbye and in a very agitated state waited for the suicides to take place.[14]
Sometime between 345pm and 4pm there were at different times at least six people almost as near the door to Hitler’s quarters as Guensche: Goebbels, Bormann, Linge, Krebs, Burgdorf, and Axmann and maybe one or two others. When not near the door, they were gathered in the nearby conference room. While Goebbels thought he may have heard a shot, the others did not. Guensche believed that none of them heard a shot, because of the sealed double doors. "Both these doors," he said, "were fireproof, gasproof, hence soundproof." Other witnesses argued that it was impossible to distinguish specific sounds over the constant pounding of the diesel engines and the humming of the ventilator fans in the bunker. [15]
In any event, after ten minutes or so (at a few minutes before 4pm), in keeping with Hitler’s instructions to wait that long before entering his room, Linge remarked to Guensche "I think it’s over" and went into the outer room. The strong fumes made his eyes smart. Choking, Linge closed and locked the door and then turned back to summon Bormann. "Frankly, I was trembling," Linge says, "and I simply did not have the gumption to go in there by myself. It was too eerie." Linge went to the conference room and told Bormann that he had entered the room and smelled gas from a discharged firearm. Immediately Bormann followed Linge to the door, opened it and they went into the room, gasping from toxic fumes. According to Linge, Bormann "turned white as chalk and stared at me helplessly." [16]
Guensche entered the room after Linge and Bormann. He went to the conference room and told its occupants that Hitler was dead. Goebbels and Axmann, with Guensche, then went to Hitler’s outer room and entered it. They then joined Bormann and Linge in Hitler’s study.[17]
Once in Hitler’s study Linge, Bormann, Axmann, Goebbels, and Guensche found that the room smelled of gunpowder, smoke and bitter almonds. They saw the bodies seated on the blue and white sofa standing against the wall opposite the door from the antechamber. Hitler was slumped at the right hand armrest of the sofa (left hand as the witnesses viewed it). His head was inclined to the right and slightly forward and his eyes open. In Hitler’s right temple gaped a bullet wound the size of a small coin. Form this spot a streaked trail of blood ran down to about the middle of his cheek. Hitler’s lower right arm was between the armrest of the sofa and his right thigh, and his open hand lay on his right knee, palm upwards. The left hung at his side. His feet were on the floor. They were pointing forwards and were about 12 to 15 inches apart. Next to Hitler’s right foot lay a 7.65mm Walther pistol, and next to his left foot a 6.35mm Walther pistol. On the carpet next to the sofa a puddle of blood the size of a plate had formed. The rear wall and the sofa were bespattered with blood. Next to Hitler was a dead Braun, with her head near, or resting on his left shoulder. She was wearing a blue dress, and showed no signs of injuries or blood. She was in the snug position she had assumed before swallowing the poison. Her upper body rested against the back of the sofa, the head was upright. Her legs were drawn up under her on the sofa. Her brightly colored high-heeled shoes stood side by side on the floor in front of the sofa. Her eyes were open and her bluish lips were firmly pressed together. [18]
Linge immediately left the room and fetched the two woolen military blankets he had left in the antechamber to wrap Hitler up in. Goebbels, Bormann, Axmann, and Guensche remained with the bodies for several minutes in silence. Guensche finally snapped out of the trance and directed Linge, who had returned, to move aside the two chairs and the table, in order to spread the blankets onto the floor. While Linge was spreading out the blankets, Guensche went to get Hoegel, Schaedle, Lindloff, Reiser, whom he had put on call to be ready to assist with the bodies. Apparently, Bormann also left the room to call other people to lend a hand. Meanwhile, Dr. Stumpfegger arrived. He examined both bodies and pronounced Hitler and Braun dead. Goebbels and Axmann were wordless spectators to the activities taking place. Linge spread one of the blankets on the study floor in front of the sofa, and with the help of Bormann, or another person, he laid Hitler’s body on the ground and wrapped him in the blanket. Linge then called out to one of the others present that the blanket for Braun was in Hitler’s bedroom. The person he addressed in this manner was already occupied with her body. He does not remember who it was. [19]
The next activities would be getting the bodies out of the bunker and then cremating them in the garden.

Navy museum's £25,000 appeal to restore sketch of teenage Victoria Cross sailor



The National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth, plans to restore a charcoal drawing of Jack Cornwell for its Jutland Centenary exhibition in 2016 (Photo: Centenary News)

Navy museum's £25,000 appeal to restore sketch of teenage Victoria Cross sailor

Posted on centenarynews.com on 27 November 2015
A charcoal sketch of a 16-year-old British sailor posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War is to be restored by the National Museum of the Royal Navy, with funds raised through a crowdfunding campaign.
Jack Cornwell, who won the Victoria Cross during the Battle of Jutland in 1916, remained at his post on the deck of HMS Chester despite being mortally wounded. The youngest winner of Britain's highest gallantry award in WW1, he died shortly after the battle.
Now the National Museum of the Royal Navy (NMRN) has launched a campaign to raise the £25,000 needed to restore a large charcoal sketch of 'Boy' Cornwell. It will be displayed at the museum's forthcoming Jutland Centenary exhibition.
The sketch, 3m x 1.5m, was a preparatory study used by noted portrait artist Frank O. Salisbury for his famous painting of Jack at his post, which he completed in 1917. The painting was presented to the Admiralty and now hangs at HMS Raleigh, the Royal Navy's training establishment near Plymouth.
Centrepiece
Nick Hewitt, Head of Heritage Development at NMRN, says: "What we want to do is to have this sketch restored so we can put it as a centrepiece in our Battle of Jutland centenary commemorations in 2016. There’s a lot of work to be done and we really need the funds to support it."
The museum is developing a major exhibition about the Battle of Jutland, scheduled to open at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard on May 24th 2016. The exhibition will be entitled: '36 Hours: Jutland 1916, the Battle that Won the War.'
Jack Cornwell’s heroism caught the public imagination and following an initial common burial, his remains were exhumed and re-interred with full naval honours at Manor Park Cemetery in east London.
Following the battle, schoolchildren from around the UK each donated a penny of their pocket money to sponsor a memorial stone and as a contribution to the Jack Cornwell Memorial Fund.
The fund was established to finance a ward for disabled sailors in the Star and Garter Home at Richmond in southwest London; £18,000 was raised, equivalent to over £1.6m today.
Jack’s valour in World War One also inspired the Scouting Association to create the Jack Cornwell Badge, the highest honour a scout can receive.
The National Museum of the Royal Navy's video about the project can be watched here.

Signs of Their Times: The American Way November 27, 2015 by Jeff Bridgers - LOC


At the most fundamental level, signs are a form of visual communication conveying a message through words, graphics, or a combination of the two. Signs’ forms range from traffic signs to billboards, from handbills to the hand-lettered homemade varieties; from simple notices to subtle and sophisticated attempts to sell, promote, or persuade. Today’s blog post initiates a new series Signs of Their Times, which will present a rich variety of signs from the Library’s Prints & Photographs collections as pictured in their contexts within time and place — their historical, cultural, or social milieu.

Below are three Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information photographs from February and March 1937 capturing versions from a national billboard advertising campaign sponsored by the National Association of Manufacturers themed "There’s no way like the American Way." The sign pictured below on a roadside near Kingwood, West Virginia, by photographer Edwin Locke features a well-dressed family and their dog enjoying one of the sweet fruits of the "World’s Highest Standard of Living" while out for a ride in their automobile:

Road sign near Kingwood, West Virginia

Road Sign near Kingwood, West Virginia. Photograph by Edwin Locke, February 1937. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsa.8a14706

In the second photograph shot by Dorothea Lange, the billboard is pictured along a stark and arid stretch of U.S. Highway 99 in California. "Father" is welcomed home by his daughter while "Mother" awaits at their house’s threshold. This domestic scene is the obvious product of the "World’s Highest Wages:"

Billboard on U.S. Highway 99 in California.

Billboard on U.S. Highway 99 in California. Photograph by Dorothea Lange, March 1937. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsa.8b31725

Lange in the same California vicinity, is mounted on the side of a pipe and plumbing supply business. The family pictured enjoys a picnic together. Clearly, the "World’s Shortest Working Hours" are providing the leisure time for such a pleasant outing:

Billboard on U.S. Highway 99 in California.

Billboard on U.S. Highway 99 in California. Photograph by Dorothea Lange, March 1937. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsa.8b31722

The sight of these billboards within the context of the Great Depression’s millions of jobless and migrant farm families gone bust was not lost on the perceptive documentary photographers during those desperately lean years.

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