Saturday, September 3, 2016

State Declassifies Documents on “Legendary Tony Poe” and his “Secret Army” [feedly]



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State Declassifies Documents on "Legendary Tony Poe" and his "Secret Army"
// UNREDACTED

The Department of State has declassified documents confirming the activities of Tony Poe, aka Anthony Poshepny, a CIA officer (cryptonym allegedly "UPIN," cover allegedly "Air Operations Officer, Continental Air Services") who conducted field operations in Thailand, Cambodia, and most prominently Laos from the 1950s to 1974. Poe is frequently cited as a basis for Colonel […]
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Chinese Threaten Japan, Australia Over South China Sea; Time For US FON Ops? [feedly]



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Chinese Threaten Japan, Australia Over South China Sea; Time For US FON Ops?
// NOSI - Naval Open Source Intelligence™

Breaking Defense – What are China's intentions in the South China Sea? It's a question intelligence analysts, diplomats and the senior leadership of the United States and its Pacific allies are all asking in the wake of a range of increasingly belligerent and threatening comments and actions by the rising global power. Perhaps most worrying is that the Kyodo News Agency and other Japanese outlets have reported variations of a story that China's ambassador to Tokyo said in late June that the Japanese Self Defense Force would "cross a red line" if they took part of Freedom of Navigation operations in the South China Sea. "(China) will not concede on sovereignty issues and is not afraid of military provocations," Cheng is reported to have told Japanese officials.


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Contesting a Presidential Election, & More from CRS [feedly]



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Contesting a Presidential Election, & More from CRS
// Secrecy News

The procedures for challenging the outcome of a presidential election are summarized in a new publication from the Congressional Research Service.

"The initial responsibility for resolving challenges, recounts, and contests to the results of a presidential election" lies with each individual state, CRS noted. But under some circumstances, challenges to a presidential election can work their way up to Congress for resolution. See How Can the Results of a Presidential Election Be Contested?, CRS Legal Sidebar, August 26, 2016.

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service include the following:

Saudi Military Campaign in Yemen Draws Congressional Attention to U.S. Arms Sales, CRS Insight, August 30, 2016

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy, updated August 29, 2016

Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations, updated August 26, 2016

Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief, updated August 26, 2016

Gangs in Central America, updated August 29, 2016

American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement, updated August 30, 2016

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation, August 26, 2016

Tolling U.S. Highways, August 26, 2016

Labor Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet, August 26, 2016

Supreme Court: Length of the Scalia Vacancy in Historical Context, CRS Insight, August 26, 2016

The post Contesting a Presidential Election, & More from CRS appeared first on Federation Of American Scientists.


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Autonomous Military Technology at a “Tipping Point” [feedly]



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Autonomous Military Technology at a "Tipping Point"
// Secrecy News

Autonomous military technologies that are capable of independently selecting a course of action to achieve a goal are maturing rapidly, the Defense Science Board said in a newly published study.

"Autonomy, fueled by advances in artificial intelligence, has attained a 'tipping point' in value," the DSB study said.

"Autonomy will deliver substantial operational value–in multiple dimensions–across an increasingly broad spectrum of DoD missions, but the DoD must move more rapidly to realize this value. Allies and adversaries alike also have access to increasingly rapid technological advances occurring globally," the study said.

The Board recommended that the Department of Defense undertake a series of pilot projects "intended to demonstrate the range of benefits of autonomy for the warfighter."

The Board did not consider catastrophic failures modes associated with autonomous technologies in any depth.

But the study did say that "an autonomous system must be designed so that humans (and/or machines) can straightforwardly determine whether, once it has been deployed, it is operating reliably and within its envelope of competence — and, if not, that appropriate action can be taken."

See Summer Study on Autonomy, Defense Science Board, June 2016.

The post Autonomous Military Technology at a "Tipping Point" appeared first on Federation Of American Scientists.


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Great White Shark Nursery Discovered Off Long Island [feedly]



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Great White Shark Nursery Discovered Off Long Island
// Old Salt Blog - a virtual port of call for all those who love the sea

gwshark1North Pacific humpback whales feed in Alaska but they winter in the Hawaiian Islands, where they mate, calve and nurse their young. The Pacific grey whales do something quite similar, spend their winters in the warm lagoons of Baja, Mexico, having sex and giving birth. Now, shark researchers have located what they believe is a great white shark nursery off the south shore of Long Island.

Very little has been known about shark breeding and birthing patterns. Unlike whales, where the young migrate with their pods, the young great white sharks are believed to be left by their mothers and spend their first twenty years in the area where they were born. The research group research group Ocearch, led by Chris Fischer, has conducted over two dozen expeditions looking for and tagging great white sharks. Recently, however, the team has found and tagged at least nine great white pups near Montauk, Long Island.

"[This is] definitely the nursery, likely the birthing site," Fischer told CBS News. "Probably the most important significant discovery we've ever made on the ocean."

Female great whites can have between two and ten pups in a litter. While scientists have never witnessed the birth of a great white shark, the number of juvenile sharks tagged suggests that the area may be a birthing site.

In a press release Tobey Curtis, lead scientist and Fisheries Manager at NOAA Fisheries says, "We've learned a lot about the adult sharks in recent years, but the pups are still a complete mystery. Tagging these baby white sharks will help us better understand how essential Long Island waters are for their survival."

Last January, scientists from WCS's New York Aquarium discovered a nursery ground for the sand tiger shark in the near shore waters of Long Island's Great South Bay.

The post Great White Shark Nursery Discovered Off Long Island appeared first on Old Salt Blog.


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Tales from a Tarawa Marine [feedly]



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Tales from a Tarawa Marine
// Naval History Blog

In the course of my duties as the oral historian for the U.S. Marine Corps History Division, I interview Marines, all ranks and all time periods. I was made aware of Lieutenant Colonel Roy H. Elrod in an unusual manner: through family friends from Muleshoe, Texas. This is where I grew up and, coincidentally, where Roy grew up, but about 30 years apart. Now Roy and I live within five miles of each other, but more than 1,500 miles from Muleshoe, in Fredericksburg, Virginia. I was quite impressed when I met Roy. Here he was 93 years old; he lived... Read the rest of this entry »
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BOOK REVIEW – World War II As Seen Through the Eyes of United States Navy Cruisers [feedly]



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BOOK REVIEW – World War II As Seen Through the Eyes of United States Navy Cruisers
// Naval Historical Foundation

WWII CruisersBy Senior Chief George J. Chambers, U.S. Navy (Retired), Heritage Books, Berwyn Heights (2015)

Reviewed by Captain Howard R. Portnoy, U.S. Navy (Retired)

George J. Chambers, the author of this book, served twenty years in the US Navy, retiring as a Senior Chief Firecontrolman in 1970. During his naval career, he served aboard five destroyer type ships and a destroyer tender. He is the author of three books, one about his naval service and two on the histories of ships on which he served.

World War II As Seen Through the Eyes of United States Navy Cruisers, was published in two paperback volumes, covers over 990 pages and is priced at $70.00. Subtitled An Integrated, Chronological History of Cruiser Operations during the War Against the Axis Powers 1939-1945, it details the roles played by the eighty-two heavy and light cruisers and two battlecruisers of the U.S. Navy in World War II. These ships saw action in both the Pacific and Atlantic- European theaters of operations and fought in all but two American major sea engagements. Combat claimed seven heavy and three light cruisers, and twenty-three other heavy and thirty-three other light cruisers were damaged.

In the preface, the author states that his book "is not a "scholarly work" in the sense that 'facts' are not always cited or referenced. Changes to original accounts recorded at the time, or shortly after that, of events described are kept to a minimum.

The author divided the book into six main chapters, the first covering the period from World War I to the 7th of December 1941. The second covered the immediate period after Pearl Harbor, with the last four chapter each covering a year from 1942 through 1945.

I believe the fifty-page first chapter which covered the twenty-year period from the end of World War I to Pearl Harbor is of marginal value. While it briefly discussed 'factors' that 'had a major influence on cruisers and their crews in coming years,' it does not spell out what the effects were. The chapter included among the factors listed, the U.S. society, the federal budget and Japan's mandated Pacific islands; but not the Washington and London Naval Conferences, which had significant and direct impact on cruiser design and capabilities. This chapter also contains forty-three pages of details of routine ship deployments and visits as well all command changes in the cruiser force from 1923 to 1941.

The narrative in the next five chapters comprises about 90% of the text. These chapters integrate day-by-day cruiser actions with those of other ship types. Each chapter has six operational theaters. The operational theaters are: Atlantic/European, Mediterranean, Aleutians, Netherland East Indies/Solomon Islands, Pacific, and South East Pacific. Since each operational theater is organized chronologically, the result is twenty-five separate sub-chapters which follow each other sequentially. (Five sub-chapters are not included because of a lack of activity in a particular year). This format makes for a somewhat jumbled narrative and impacts continuity adversely. Treatment of primary battles is satisfactory, but the minute-to-minute focus and the integration of ships other than cruisers in the narrative sometimes result in having too much information to process.

This majority of the sources cited in the narrative are individual cruiser action reports, war diaries, command histories, and deck logs. For the most part, those documents provided the author sufficient information to develop the combat scenarios that are the heart of the book. Unfortunately, they also contain numerous administrative items and extraneous details of minor or routine events not germane to the combat narrative; many of which are inserted into the text by the author. Examples include changes in cruiser command, ship movements of no combat relevance, the sighting of floating mines, visits of VIPs and media personalities, and shipboard drills. Also, I think there is excessive coverage of task organization assignments and changes, which slows the narrative and adds little value. I found numerous inconsistencies and omissions in these listings. Problems are exacerbated by a confusing system of indicating dates in the text. In the chronological narratives, the month is identified only once, and this is done only at the first entry for that month. Also, since the date is not entered at the top of each page when a particular entry is found, the reader must scroll through preceding paragraphs to determine the month of that entry. Further, dates are not used in the Table of Contents, but rather a particular battle or campaign. The result is that many minor events having nothing to do with that battle or campaign are included in that section.

As for the bibliography, it appears adequate. However, there are some other archival collections, government and military collections, and books that could have been of considerable value to the author, both in providing information and identifying additional sources worthy of examination. Since the book's coverage of Houston's  involvement in the Java Sea and Sunda Strait battles is rather limited and based on secondary sources only, I believe James D. Hornfischer's classic Ship of Ghosts: the Story of the USS Houston, not included in the bibliography, could have helped considerably on both accounts. However, if the desire is not to revise or update the narrative, I can understand why retroactive revision or update may not be sought.

Regarding the notes, they are relatively few considering the size of the narrative and few of these add significant information or insight. In those instances, mostly in the 1944-1945 chapters where extensive excerpts from action reports or war diaries are quoted, the particular report is not identified, and therefore it cannot be located and checked by future researchers.  Where a source is unidentified but also not an action report or war diary, I believe it most likely to be either Robert J. Cressman's "The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II" or one of the eight-volume "Dictionary of American Fighting Ships" published by the Naval History Division.

The index was designed to list every page that mentions a specific ship, person, or operational unit. Here too, I found errors and omissions. Finally, the absence of maps showing locations mentioned in the text and charts of ship tracks during major battles is a shortcoming that severely degrades the narrative.

In summary, both Mr. Chambers and his wife, who spent countless hours at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) at College Park MD, worked very hard to extract the raw data and compile it into a readable and coherent narrative. They are to be commended for their efforts. However, in my mind, the book has some deficiencies. There are major problems with the format and organization of the book, much irrelevant or extraneous material, some errors and omissions in the text and index, is in need of a good editor, and the cost is too high for the general reader or naval buff. Finally, I am not convinced that a book focusing on cruisers is an appropriate place one to describe major fleet actions involving significant numbers of other type ships.

BuyOnAmazon

Captain Portnoy retired from the U.S. Navy after thirty years of service, He commanded a diesel submarine and served in two other subs, a battleship, an aircraft carrier, and a destroyer. Ashore he filled intelligence and politico-military billets.  After retirement, he worked for several defense contractors in the Washington D.C. area.

BOOK REVIEW – World War II As Seen Through the Eyes of United States Navy Cruisers was published by the Naval Historical Foundation and originally appeared on Naval Historical Foundation on September 2, 2016.


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BOOK REVIEW – The Battle of Jutland [feedly]



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BOOK REVIEW – The Battle of Jutland
// Naval Historical Foundation

9781473841857-uk-300By Geoffrey Bennett (originally published B.T. Batsford Ltd., London, UK 1964), Pan & Sword Books Ltd. Barnsley, UK (2015)

Reviewed by Tim McGrath

Few historians, on land or sea, can match the depth and breadth of the work of Captain Geoffrey Bennett. As a Royal Navy officer who served Great Britain in war and peacetime, his life would be an interesting read. By the end of his life, he was internationally renowned for his writings on both world wars, Lord Nelson, Trafalgar, and a series of novels enjoyed by adult and child alike.

Being in the midst of the World War I Centennial, Bennett's The Battle of Jutland has been reissued by Pen & Sword Books Ltd.  The largest naval battle of "The Great War" has been written about extensively, but rarely by an author with a Distinguished Service Cross of his own.

The battle itself is well known to armchair and actual historians: how the Kaiser's Vice-Admiral, Reinhard Scheer, commanding the German High Seas Fleet, hoped to lure –and defeat – Great Britain's Admiral Sir John Jellicoe's Great Fleet. A victory by Scheer would not only enable the German Navy to expand its influence from the North Sea to the Atlantic, but embarrass the greatest naval power than on earth and, perhaps, scuttle the century-old belief that Britannia still "ruled the waves." In a two-day fight off Denmark's Jutland Peninsula, 250 battleships, battlecruisers, destroyers, and other navy vessels fought a bloody engagement that left a host of questions for historians and naval commanders to debate ever since.

Captain Bennett's narrative is a compelling combination of statistics, background development, chronological layout, and character study. His third chapter, "Der Tag," opens with Admiral Beatty's remark to  his king, George V, "We were haunted by the fear that possibly 'the day' may never come." Then, over the next 32 pages, Bennett coolly describes "the day's" fearful clash of battle cruisers, pausing in his narration to inform the reader of the inaccuracy of long-range naval guns at that time. It is a masterly twist; pages later, when the mighty German battlecruiser Lützow's gunners find their mark, the resulting carnage becomes all the more shocking.

Captain Bennett takes us onward into battle, adding vignettes reminiscent of a Tuchman or McCullough, from a German official comparing Scheer's tactics to Nelson's at Trafalgar to a British light cruiser's report that even the ship's mascot, a black kitten, "did its duty nobly." His descriptions of battle, such as "ghost-like columns of water thrown up by heavy enemy shells," work in the reader's imagination like a movie camera. As he tracks the two fleets in their nighttime maneuvering, Bennett succeeds in taking his reader right along, wearing both German and British uniforms. His detail is unerring, his storytelling compelling.

The last chapter, Who Won? weighs the claim of both sides before coming to its not-too-surprising conclusion. Appendices list the ships and commanders of both fleets, as well as The Harper Record's essay on the battle. Maps serve as a handy resource to turn to as the conflict unfolds, but it is the photographs Captain Bennett chose that add to his tale, particularly those from the battle, and a magnificent one of Jellicoe, moving resolutely forward aboard ship, seemingly to walk right out of the picture.

In an essay on writing history, Barbara Tuchman recalled advice from a professor: "Will the reader turn the page?" Fifty-two years ago, Captain Bennett wrote quite a page-turner with The Battle of Jutland. It still is.

BuyOnAmazon

Tim McGrath, author of Give Me a Fast Ship, has earned the John Barry Book Award prize from the New York Navy League Council.

BOOK REVIEW – The Battle of Jutland was published by the Naval Historical Foundation and originally appeared on Naval Historical Foundation on September 2, 2016.


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Seals, sharks and shipwrecks: 3D mapping the Lady Darling shipwreck [feedly]



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Seals, sharks and shipwrecks: 3D mapping the Lady Darling shipwreck
// Maritime Archaeology «

The Narooma Bar on a very calm day with Montague Island in the distance. Image: Lee Graham /ANMM.

The Narooma Bar on a very calm day with Montague Island in the distance. Image: Lee Graham / ANMM.

New South Wales hosts a wide variety of historic shipwreck sites. These range from large, fully exposed and intact hulls to smaller, largely disarticulated, dispersed, and buried structural components and artefacts. The environments in which these sites exist also differ significantly in terms of seabed composition, water depth and water clarity.

Many historic shipwrecks in New South Wales waters are located at depths near or in excess of 20 metres (66 feet) and are characterised by moderate-to-low visibility conditions. These attributes in turn often negatively influence working conditions, particularly the amount of time available to execute an adequately comprehensive documentation program.

As Dr James Hunter recently discussed in his blog Meanderings in the Murk: Diving on the wreck of the Centennial, the use of 3D mapping software such as AgiSoft Photoscan and small compact underwater digital cameras such as the GoPro to document and analyse submerged archaeological sites is an emerging field of research in maritime archaeology.

Although digital photogrammetry has rapidly evolved into a relatively inexpensive and efficient means of documenting submerged shipwreck sites, it is still fraught with issues and in-water survey methods still need significant refinement in order to produce the most time and cost efficient results. In an effort to test the efficiency of these methods as a mapping tool maritime archaeologists at the museum's Maritime Archaeology Research Centre (MARC) and the Silentworld Foundation have selected five shipwrecks in New South Wales waters with diverse site and environmental profiles.

These include the composite-hulled sailing ship Centurion (1887), the paddle steamer Herald (1884), the screw steamship Royal Shepherd (1890), the iron-hulled steamship Centennial (1889) and the iron-hulled steamship SS Lady Darling, which was wrecked south of Montague Island off Narooma, New South Wales, in 1880.

The Lady Darling

The SS Lady Darling was a single screw, iron-hulled, wooden decked, three-masted, brigantine rigged, auxiliary steamer. It was built by W.H. Potter and Company in Liverpool, England in 1863 and launched in July 1864. The steamer originally displaced 649 tons (net) and was 73.03m (189.7ft) long, had a breadth of 8.83m (28.10ft) and was powered by a 100 horsepower, twin cylinder steam engine.

It had an elliptical counter stern, four iron bulkheads and was strengthened along its lower hull with concrete. It was originally registered in Liverpool, England (Liverpool 426/ 1864), its official number was 50499 and having been built under a Special Survey was classified A1 by Lloyds in 1864 (Smith and Nutley, 1998).

The vessel arrived in Melbourne in January 1865 and its registry was transferred shortly afterwards to Melbourne in 1866 (Melbourne 9/1866) with its owner recorded as Charles Edward Bright (Bright Brothers and Company) of Melbourne. In November 1866 the vessel was laid upon the Government patent Slip where the hull was painted, its bottom coated with Borthwick's Patent Anti-fouling Composition and its compass adjusted.

The partially collapsed counter stern of the Lady Darling looking towards the north. Image: ANMM.

The partially collapsed counter stern of the Lady Darling looking towards the north. Image: ANMM.

The vessel then commenced operations as a collier (general cargo carrier) and following a refit, a coastal passenger vessel on the Melbourne to Newcastle via Sydney route. Given the tough competition of the route, the vessel was not a success and was subsequently sent back to England. Lady Darling's registry was transferred back to Tyndall and Heywood Bright, of Liverpool, in 1869.

Back in Liverpool, significant structural modifications were made to the vessel in 1870. These included lengthening the vessel by 50 feet to 239.5' (72.9m) as well as adding a new bottom. The ship's machinery (an inverted direct acting engine rated at 140hp) was serviced and re-certified at the same time. Lady Darling's net tonnage was raised (reflecting its additional length) to 895 tons.

For the next four years, the Lady Darling operated in the Mediterranean and on the Atlantic crossing between England and Canada before being sold again in 1875 to James Paterson of Paterson and Company, Melbourne, Victoria. Upon the steamers' return to Australia, it was promptly put back onto the Melbourne–Newcastle–Melbourne route as a collier with a 1000–1200 ton cargo capacity.

On its final voyage in 1880, the Lady Darling departed Newcastle, New South Wales – on its regular run to Melbourne – with 1220 tons of coal on the 8th November and then proceeded to steam and sail its way down the New South Wales coast, battling a rising gale.

The steamer was off the South Coast of New South Wales, approximately four nautical miles south of Montague Island, in the vicinity of Aughinish Rock, in the late evening of 10 November 1880 when Captain Roberts reported that the ship had struck something: 'abreast the engine room and nine feet (2.75m) below the water line and forty feet (12.2m) forward of the stern'.

The impact tore upon the coal bunkers near the engine room's aft bulkhead, opening the hull to the sea, which quickly flooded the engine room putting out the fires and making the ship's pumps inoperable. Unable to manoeuvre, with its pumps out of action and the hull rapidly filling the Captain and crew abandoned ship. The crew made their way towards Montague Island where they were assisted by the construction crew employed at building the new lighthouse on the Island.

The collapsed cargo hold of the Lady Darling. Image: ANMM.

The collapsed cargo hold of the Lady Darling. Image: ANMM.

On the morning of 11 November, the crew of the Illawarra Steam Navigation Company's steamer Kameruka located the remains of the sunken vessel south-west of Montague Island in 15 fathoms (28 metres) of water and subsequently reported their discovery to the Marine Board in Sydney. The Marine Board promptly despatched the pilot vessel, Captain Cook, to investigate the discovery and rescue any survivors.

At the Court of Marine Inquiry, held in late November 1880, neither the Captain, Deck Officer nor any of the ship's crew reported seeing any reef or floating debris either before or after the vessel struck. With no evidence to indicate otherwise the Court found that no blame could be attached to the Officers and crew of the ship as the vessel appeared to have struck an unidentified object such as a piece of wreckage or an uncharted reef.

The actual location of the Lady Darling remained very much a mystery until August 1996 when the net from a Bermagui fishing trawler, operated by Dom Puglise, became entangled on something on the seabed off Cape Dromedary. Puglise asked Bert Elswyk, the owner of a local fishing and dive charter boat, and his friend Paul Mood to recover his snagged nets. On the 16 August 1996 Elsyck and Mood dove on the spot indicated by Puglise and in doing so found that the nets had snagged on the remains of Lady Darling's iron hull.

Due to its historical and archaeological significance, the Lady Darling now lies within a Historic Shipwreck Protected Zone and the site has the highest level of protection under the Historic Shipwrecks Act (1976) only accessible through a permit system issued by the Federal Minister for the Environment or their State delegate.

The wreck today

Recently the Maritime Archaeology Research Centre (MARC) at the Australian National Maritime Museum obtained such a research permit to enter the Protected Zone around the Lady Darling to conduct a 3D mapping exercise on the wrecksite.

Taking advantage of predicted favourable light westerly winds and opportune tides the dive team, consisting of Lee Graham, Dr James Hunter and Kieran Hosty from the MARC, Paul Hundley from the Silentworld Foundation and two volunteer archaeology divers Matilda Goslett and Eliza Goslett, arrived in Narooma, on the south coast of New South Wales, some 350 kilometres south of Sydney in early August 2016.

After talking to the Narooma Coastal Patrol, who would be supplying safety radio cover during the fieldwork, and assessing the area's various boat ramps, the team launched Maggie III and prepared to dive what is considered to be the most intact shallow water shipwreck (less than 30m) in New South Wales waters.

Maggie III, the team's research vessel first had to successfully cross the infamous Narooma Bar at the mouth of the Wagonga Inlet. After assessing the Bar and checking in with the Coastal Patrol, our dive team departed Narooma for the 14 kilometre trip to the wrecksite – which is located 5.5 kilometres south-west of Aughinish Rock, 8 kilometres south-west of the southern end of Montague Island (home to a large permanent colony of Australian and New Zealand Fur Seals) and two kilometres offshore from Mystery Bay (Cape Dromedary).

Arriving on site we first located the wreck by using a combination of GPS co-ordinates and Maggie III's side scan sonar. Once located , as we could not anchor on or near the wreck in case we damaged it, we then rigged up a shot line which would guide our divers down to the seabed.

Following final safety briefings the dive teams entered the water and swam down to the wreck which slowly appeared resting on a relatively flat sandy bottom in 29-30 metres of water. With a slight current pushing us southwards we quickly found the relatively intact counter stern of the Lady Darling (reinforced by structural sound iron cant frames), bilge stringers and a transverse bulkhead. The structure rises up some 4 to 5 metres off the sand and supports the remains of the upper deck (minus its timber decking) as well as the steamer's large steering quadrant.

Moving forward of the transverse bulkhead, and swimming between the port and starboard hull plating (which projects between 1 and 2 metres above the sand), we swam over what was Lady Darling's engine room. We could see the steamer's exposed propeller shaft, massive twin cylinder, vertical, inverted, direct acting steam engine (230 cm long x 400 cm high) as well as an equally impressive large, single cylindrical type, ship's boiler (325cm long x 320 cm wide), lying just aft of another transverse iron bulkhead.

SS Lady Darling site. Image: John Riley Memorial Collection, Heritage Branch, Department of Environment and Heritage.

SS Lady Darling site. Image: John Riley Memorial Collection, Heritage Branch, Department of Environment and Heritage.

Forward from the engine room's bulkhead, we swam over the remains of the steamer's cargo holds, which would have originally contained more than 1200 tons of Newcastle coal. In this section of the wreck, the sides of the steamer's hull (unsupported by the transverse bulkheads) have collapsed outwards. They are almost level with the surrounding sand and the coal has become dispersed by the strong currents which frequent the site.

Team members swimming past the bow section of the Lady Darling. Image: ANMM.

Team members swimming past the bow section of the Lady Darling. Image: ANMM.

In the past, this area of the wreck has been deeply buried in the sand for some 30 to 40 metres before protruding again and rising up to the bow section. However, on our recent visit the entire forward section of the ship's hull, including its iron keelson, lower iron floors and water ballast tanks were lying exposed on the seabed, with the port and starboard sides of the hull splayed out on either side. Lying on top of the exposed lower deck plating were the remains of the ship's upper deck. These consisted of iron deck beams supported by tie plates, diagonals and the mast partner plates, that reinforced the main and fore masts of the Lady Darling.

A shiver of Port Jackson sharks resting inside the bow of the Lady Darling. Image: ANMM.

A shiver of Port Jackson sharks resting inside the bow of the Lady Darling. Image: ANMM.

Off to starboard we also observed a small upright donkey boiler, which would originally have supplied separate steam power to deck winches, pumps and windlasses.

The intact bow is now home to small shiver (or group) of Port Jackson sharks. The bow is tilted over on its starboard side and all the fittings associated with the bow, including Admiralty and Porters Patent anchors, a capstan, a davit and anchor chain, have tumbled outside the hull and now lie on the seabed to the west of the wreck.

With our initial inspection over it was down to business. Along with the sounds of passing humpback whales singing in our ears and being occasionally photobombed by a curious New Zealand fur seal, we commenced recording the wreck. We used two GoPro cameras which were equipped with a variety of coloured filters to help compensate for the effect of water depth. The density of the water effects the ambient colour spectrum and is one of the big problems with taking underwater images at such depth. Colours such as red disappear at around 5m, orange at around 8m, yellow at around 12m and green at around 22m – turning the underwater terrain into murky blues and browns.

Archaeological diver Matilda Goslett with a GoPro camera equipped with colour correcting filters. Image: ANMM.

Archaeological diver Matilda Goslett with a GoPro camera equipped with colour correcting filters. Image: ANMM.

Working quickly in two teams, we recorded the major structural features such as the bow, counter stern, engine, boilers and transverse bulkheads allowing for up to 40% overlap between each set of images. Unfortunately, at 30m you don't get much safe bottom time before you start incurring a serious decompression commitment so after 20 minutes on the bottom it was time to ascend the shot line and commence our various safety stops before being picked up by Paul Hundley and Maggie III circling above us.

In the afternoon the same process was carried out but with an even shorter bottom time of 15 minutes. However, practise makes perfect and with no need to carry out a site inspection on our second dive, we managed to record a significant area of the wreck before we once again had to make our ascent to the surface.

Now back in Sydney, the team are currently assessing the still images and digital footage obtained on our two-day site inspection of the Lady Darling shipwreck and we're running the images through the AgiSoft software to create the 3D map of the site. Stay tuned for future blogs detailing our progress.

—Kieran Hosty, Manager of Maritime Archaeology

You can find out more about the museum's maritime archaeology initiatives at our website and on our blog.

Acknowledgements

  • Paul Hundley, Silentworld Foundation
  • Eliza Goslett, Volunteer Archaeological Diver
  • Matilda Goslett, Volunteer Archaeological Diver
  • Giada Smorto, Liceo Scientifico Statale, Rome, Italy
  • Ross Constable and Bronwyn Roll, Narooma Marine Rescue

Filed under: Maritime Archaeology Tagged: 3D, Archaeology, diving, GoPro, Historic Shipwreck Database, maritime archeaology, Melbourne, Montague Island, Narooma Bar, Newcastle, nsw south coast, shipwreck, silent world, Silent World Foundation, SS Lady Darling, underwater exploration, underwater photography
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Canada’s New Armored Cubs Gear Up at Gagetown [feedly]



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Canada's New Armored Cubs Gear Up at Gagetown
// Defense Update

We've Moved! Update your Reader Now.

This feed has moved to: http://feeds.feedblitz.com/feedburner/defenseupdate

Update your reader now with this changed subscription address to get your latest updates from us.


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Range of the North Korean KN-11 Sub-Launched Missile [feedly]



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Range of the North Korean KN-11 Sub-Launched Missile
// All Things Nuclear

Last week, on August 24, North Korea conducted a test of the KN-11 submarine-launched missile it is currently developing. This is the third test of the missile this year, and the first time the missile appeared to operate as planned. (A list of previous tests can be found here.)

The missile appears to use solid fuel rather than liquid fuel like most of North Korea's missiles, and has two stages.

A key question is what range the KN-11 may have. As I show below, the maximum range of the missile that was tested appears to be about 1,250 km.

Determining the KN-11 range

The KN-11 reportedly flew to a range of 500 km in the recent test. But as Jeffrey Lewis points out in his recent post at armscontrolwonk, photos from the North Korean missile control center contain images of computer screens that show the missile following a lofted trajectory. If it followed a lofted trajectory, its maximum range would be longer than 500 km. The question is how much longer.

Jeffrey's colleague Dave Schmerler at the Monterey Institute once again was able to provide me with data from high resolution photos showing the Korean computer screens. We were able to determine that the August 24 launch reached a maximum altitude of about 550 km.

Knowing the range and apogee of the test allows us to determine the maximum range of the missile if it was launched on a standard trajectory.

I adjusted the parameters of a computer model of the missile to give a range of 500 km with an apogee of 550 km. Using those same parameters, I then used the computer model to calculate what the maximum range of that missile would be if flown on a non-lofted trajectory.

That calculation gives a range for the KN-11 of about 1,250 km on a standard "minimum-energy" (MET) trajectory, assuming the same payload as the lofted test. The result is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

This range is similar to North Korea's Nodong missile, and would allow it reach most or all of Japan from a submarine located near the Korean coast. While theoretically the missile could reach more distant targets if the submarine moved farther from the coast, the submarines are relatively noisy and would likely be sitting ducks for anti-submarine attacks if they strayed too far.

While the missile doesn't have the range to bring new targets, like Guam, into range, as Jeffrey points out, using the KN-11 as a mobile solid-fuel land-based missile would have the advantage that it would not require the fueling preparation time that the liquid-fuel Nodong does.


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This Day In Naval History: September 2 [feedly]



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This Day In Naval History: September 2
// Maritime News - Maritime & Shipbuilding News

1777 - The frigate, USS Raleigh, commanded by Thomas Thompson, captures the British brig, HMS Nancy, while en route to France to purchase military stores.   1864 - During the Civil War,
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The New York Journal Collection 1896-1899 – Posted Online at the Library of Congress Website. [feedly]



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The New York Journal Collection 1896-1899 – Posted Online at the Library of Congress Website.
// GenealogyBlog

The following description is found at the site:

The_Yellow_Kid_350pw

The New York Journal Collection consists of The Journal (1896-01-01 to 1896-07-18) and subsequent titles, New York Journal (1896-07-16 to 1897-04-01) and New York Journal and Advertiser (1897-04-02 to 1899-12-31) . In 1895, William Randolph Hearst purchased the paper to compete with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World. The New York Journal is an example of "Yellow Journalism," where the newspapers competed for readers through bold headlines, illustrations, and activist journalism. The paper infamously reported on and influenced events like the Spanish-American War. The Sunday editions contained additional supplements: American Women's Home Journal, American Magazine, and the American Humorist, which included the "Yellow Kid" comic strip. These supplements featured colorful layouts and covered sporting events, pseudoscience, and popular culture, such as the bicycle craze of 1896.

Check it out.

Thanks to ResearchBuzz for the heads-up.


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World War II Veteran Laid To Rest After 75 Years [feedly]



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World War II Veteran Laid To Rest After 75 Years
// U.S. Navy News Top Stories

World War II veteran Lt. Julian Jordan was laid to rest at the Lewis Funeral Chapel at Naval Base Kitsap (NBK) 75 years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Aug. 29.
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CAAF grants a McClour trailer from the Marine Corps [feedly]



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CAAF grants a McClour trailer from the Marine Corps
// CAAFlog

In United States v. McClour, No. 16-0455/AF (grant discussed here), and United States v. Taylor, No. 16-0482/AF (grant discussed here), CAAF is reviewing the propriety of the Air Force instruction to members that they must (as opposed to the more-common instruction that members should) find the accused guilty if the prosecution has proven the offense beyond a reasonable doubt.

Both McClour and Taylor are Air Force cases.

But the problematic instruction has also been used by military judges in the Naval service, and yesterday CAAF granted review of this issue in a Marine Corps case:

No. 16-0565/MC. U.S. v. Dalton C. Nickens. CCA 201500142. On consideration of the petition for grant of review of the decision of the United States Navy-Marine Corps Court of Criminal Appeals, it is ordered that said petition is hereby granted on the following issue specified by the Court:

WHETHER THE MILITARY JUDGE ERRED WHEN HE INSTRUCTED THE MEMBERS, "IF, BASED ON YOUR CONSIDERATION OF THE EVIDENCE, YOU ARE FIRMLY CONVINCED THAT THE ACCUSED IS GUILTY OF A CHARGED OFFENSE, YOU MUST FIND HIM GUILTY OF THAT OFFENSE," WHERE SUCH AN INSTRUCTION IS IN VIOLATION OF UNITED STATES v. MARTIN LINEN SUPPLY CO, 430 U.S. 564, 572-73 (1977), AND THERE IS INCONSISTENT APPLICATION BETWEEN THE SERVICES OF THE INSTRUCTIONS RELATING TO WHEN MEMBERS MUST OR SHOULD CONVICT AN ACCUSED.

No briefs will be filed under Rule 25.


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This Week in Military Justice – August 28, 2016 [feedly]



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This Week in Military Justice – August 28, 2016
// CAAFlog

This week at SCOTUS: The Solicitor General waived the right to respond to the cert. petition in Caldwell. I'm not aware of any other military justice developments at the Supreme Court, where I'm tracking three cases:

This week at CAAF: The next scheduled oral argument at CAAF is on October 11, 2016.

This week at the ACCA: The next scheduled oral argument at the Army CCA is on September 7, 2016.

This week at the AFCCA: The next scheduled oral argument at the Air Force CCA is on September 15, 2016.

This week at the CGCCA: The Coast Guard CCA's oral argument schedule shows no scheduled oral arguments.

This week at the NMCCA: The Navy-Marine Corps CCA's website shows no scheduled oral arguments.


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How Can the U.S. and China Avoid Sliding Into Conflict? [feedly]



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How Can the U.S. and China Avoid Sliding Into Conflict?
// gCaptain.com

South China SeaBy Ying Fu (Bloomberg View) — As the leaders of China and the U.S. meet in Hangzhou ahead of this weekend's Group of 20 summit, many would like to know whether differences over the South China Sea will cloud the bilateral relationship. The question is, what exactly are the two nations competing over in the […]

The post How Can the U.S. and China Avoid Sliding Into Conflict? appeared first on gCaptain.


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Russia Honors First British Arctic Merchant Navy Convoy [feedly]



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Russia Honors First British Arctic Merchant Navy Convoy
// gCaptain.com

By Dmitry Madorsky (Reuters) British and Russian World War Two veterans gathered on Wednesday in Arkhangelsk, 75 years to the day since Britain's first Arctic convoy of military supplies steamed into the northern port. Britain's Princess Anne has been among those attending events honoring those who sailed, and the thousands who died, protecting supply convoys […]

The post Russia Honors First British Arctic Merchant Navy Convoy appeared first on gCaptain.


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Tuesday, August 30, 2016

USS Decatur, USS Spruance Conduct Anti-Submarine Warfare Exercise with Japan [feedly]



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USS Decatur, USS Spruance Conduct Anti-Submarine Warfare Exercise with Japan
// U.S. Navy News Headline Stories

Guided-missile destroyers USS Decatur (DDG 73) and USS Spruance (DDG 111) conducted bilateral training exercises in the Philippine Sea with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMDSF), Aug. 22-26.
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DoD Security Cooperation Programs, & More from CRS [feedly]



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DoD Security Cooperation Programs, & More from CRS
// Secrecy News

The Department of Defense has assumed a growing role in providing assistance to foreign military and security services over the past decade, often supplanting the Department of State. The evolution of DoD security cooperation activities is traced in a new report from the Congressional Research Service.

"Since military aid became a major component of U.S. foreign assistance to counter the rise of the Soviet Union after World War II, the State Department has historically exercised the lead in security assistance activities," CRS noted.

Over time, however, "Congress began to expand gradually the scope and character of the statutory framework by authorizing DOD to directly train, equip, and otherwise assist foreign military and other security forces…."

"As DOD's security cooperation responsibilities and authorities have multiplied, general agreement has emerged that the statutory framework has evolved into a cumbersome system."

"Congress has provided DOD with, by CRS's estimate, more than 80 separate authorities to assist and engage with foreign governments, militaries, security forces, and populations, although other organizations have identified a larger number of authorities."

Those legislative authorities for DoD security cooperation programs are tabulated in the CRS report along with associated funding levels for many of the individual programs. See DOD Security Cooperation: An Overview of Authorities and Issues, August 23, 2016.

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service that Congress has withheld from public release include the following.

Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State, updated August 24, 2016

Heroin Trafficking in the United States, August 23, 2016

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections, updated August 24, 2016

Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive, updated August 25, 2016

Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations, updated August 22, 2016

Federal Support for Reproductive Health Services: Frequently Asked Questions, updated August 24, 2016

History of House and Senate Restaurants: Context for Current Operations and Issues, August 23, 2016

House and Senate Restaurants: Current Operations and Issues for Congress, August 23, 2016

Reforming the U.S. Postal Service: Background and Issues for Congress, August 25, 2016

The post DoD Security Cooperation Programs, & More from CRS appeared first on Federation Of American Scientists.


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Knowing the Enemy: DoD Identity Activities [feedly]



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Knowing the Enemy: DoD Identity Activities
// Secrecy News

The Department of Defense is devoting increased attention to what it calls "identity activities," which seek to identify individuals who may pose a threat on or off the battlefield.

"Identity activities are a collection of functions and actions that appropriately recognize and differentiate one person or persona from another person or persona to support decision making," according to a new DoD publication on the subject.

"Establishing and characterizing the identity of persons of interest, known adversaries, and other relevant actors across time and space is an operational imperative that improves a commander's full understanding of the OE [operational environment]." See Identity Activities, Joint Doctrine Note 2-16, August 3, 2016, Unclassified.

The growing need to identify individual adversaries corresponds to the rise of anonymous, dispersed and concealed threats, DoD said. "Global disorder is increasing while the comparative US military advantage has begun to erode."

"Because VEOs [violent extremist organizations] and TCOs [transnational criminal organizations] prefer to conduct operations by, with and through the populace, while maintaining a level of anonymity by blending in, employment of identity activities to separate adversaries from civilians and assist in positively identifying threat actors and their networks increases in significance."

Paradoxically, identity is not a constant. "Identity is not static…. [It] is the culmination of multiple aspects of an entity's characteristics, attributes, activities, reputation, knowledge, and judgments — all of which are constantly evolving."

Accordingly, collection of a range of identity-related data is desired, including biographical, biological, behavioral, and reputational information.

"The breadth of identity information, if analyzed and navigated expertly, can be used confidently to make positive identifications across time and space, identify and assess patterns and anomalies, and better anticipate the capability and intent of actors of interest," the DoD document said.

Once acquired, such data is retained for future reference.

"While some identity information (e.g., attributes contained on an identity credential) can be used immediately at the point of collection, most collected data and materials are sent to authoritative data repositories or local, regional, or reachback facilities or laboratories for appropriate processing and exploitation."

The potential for misuse of this data was not explicitly addressed, but identity activities are likely to encounter legal and policy barriers, DoD acknowledged.

These barriers include US statutory limitations on the collection of information regarding US persons, as well as foreign laws affecting DoD operations abroad. "HN [host nation] law governing an individual's right to privacy could significantly affect how and what identity activities can be employed during a military operation; limiting certain uses, requiring specific handling conditions for identity information, and/or restricting the means of collection."

"Identity activities" is a new term in the DoD lexicon, and it does not appear in the latest (February 2016) edition of the official DoD dictionary (although "identity intelligence," one of its components, is listed).

The rise of identity activities is presented as a DoD response to the changing security threat environment.

"As conflicts continue to become more irregular and asymmetric in nature, the need to identify, deter, deny, and degrade an adversary's mobility, anonymity, and access to the populace and enabling resources increases in significance," the DoD document said.

The post Knowing the Enemy: DoD Identity Activities appeared first on Federation Of American Scientists.


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26 Hours of Information Recovered from El Faro Voyage Data Recorder [feedly]



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26 Hours of Information Recovered from El Faro Voyage Data Recorder
// Old Salt Blog - a virtual port of call for all those who love the sea

El Faro, Photo: TOTE Maritime

El Faro, Photo: TOTE Maritime

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) announced Wednesday that they had successfully retrieved 26 hours of information from the El Faro Voyage Data Recorder (VDR). The VDR was recovered earlier in August in 15,000 feet of water.  The US flagged cargo ship, El Faro, sank during Hurricane Joaquin in October 2015, with the loss of all 33 aboard, northeast of Acklins and Crooked Islands, in the Bahamas.

From the NTSB  press release:

About 26 hours of information was recovered from the VDR, including bridge audio, weather data and navigational data. Investigators examined the VDR, found it to be in good condition, and downloaded the memory module data in accordance with the manufacturer's recommended procedures.

Numerous events leading up to the loss of the El Faro are heard on the VDR's audio, recorded from microphones on the ship's bridge. The quality of the recording is degraded because of high levels of background noise. There are times during the recording when the content of crew discussion is difficult to determine, at other times the content can be determined using audio filtering.

The recording began about 5:37 a.m., Sept. 30, 2015 – about 8 hours after the El Faro departed Jacksonville, Florida, with the ship about 150 nautical miles southeast of the city. The bridge audio from the morning of Oct. 1, captured the master and crew discussing their actions regarding flooding and the vessel's list. The vessel's loss of propulsion was mentioned on the bridge audio about 6:13 a.m. Also captured was the master speaking on the telephone, notifying shoreside personnel of the vessel's critical situation, and preparing to abandon ship if necessary. The master ordered abandon ship and sounded the alarm about 7:30 a.m., Oct. 1, 2015. The recording ended about 10 minutes later when the El Faro was about 39 nautical miles northeast of Crooked Island, Bahamas. These times are preliminary and subject to change and final validation by the voyage data recorder group.

The VDR group's technical experts will continue reviewing the entire recording, including crew discussions regarding the weather situation and the operation and condition of the ship.

Read the press release here.

The post 26 Hours of Information Recovered from El Faro Voyage Data Recorder appeared first on Old Salt Blog.


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The Wartime Films Project: Setting Goals and Intended Outcomes for User-Centered Design Pilots [feedly]



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The Wartime Films Project: Setting Goals and Intended Outcomes for User-Centered Design Pilots
// NARAtions

This post comes from Kerri Young at Historypin, our partners in the Wartime Films engagement project, and is part of a series outlining how NARA is using design thinking to reach new and existing audiences.

Last month we looked at how research and analysis have helped us narrow our focus on particular audiences and a subset of relevant content. Today we'll take a look at how we built our evaluation framework for the project.

Having narrowed our target audiences for the Wartime Films project and settled on WWI-focused content for our engagement efforts, we began to really concentrate on our goals for the pilot. Unlike a traditional publicity campaign seeking media responses, or a management document to commit to deliverables, we're seeking particular outcomes for the target audiences, as well as ways to measure the impact of our engagement. Outcomes focus on social transformation, and are defined as changes in the behaviour, relationships, activities, or actions of the people, groups, and organizations with whom a program works directly.

Working with Historypin's research and evaluation team at Shift, we decided on the formula of actors + actions = intended outcome to shape our goals. Recognizing that we're part of a much larger ecosystem of cultural heritage organizations encouraging discovery and reuse of our national treasures, we focused the formula on answering two key questions : what did we want to see happen in the project, and how could we measure our specific impact in the space through this particular pilot?

Screenshot of chart showing aims (the change we want to bring)

Brainstorming initial goals for our teachers target group.

Using a widely-adapted, user-centered approach to planning called Outcome Mapping, we're able to focus on social transformation, particularly how it pertains to the public discovery and creative reuse of primary source materials. For us, the desired "big picture" change is broken down into a series of multiple outcomes that multiple actors can work towards. To build our outcome mapping framework, we first pinpointed not only NARA's wider goals for access and reuse in the project overall, but for each of our target audiences individually: teachers, local museums, and coders/digital humanists. The audience analysis we carried out in the beginning of the project was key in helping to define these goals, and placing them in the framework helped us organize the actions and results we were hoping to see.

Screenshot of outcomes chart (change we want to see)

Some outcomes for our museums target group.

We narrowed down the most important aims for each group and created a spreadsheet to organize our intended outcomes, the activities that can help us reach those outcomes, and methods to measure how effective the actions have been. The outcomes we settled upon for each group focused on issues of awareness, access, and community, each connected to larger organizational goals for NARA (see the National Archives 2014-2018 Strategic Plan).

The next steps of this process involved coming up with initial activities- such as teacher workshops and publishing raw metadata for coders- that can be logically linked to our outcomes. We then created measurements for these activities, which can be anything from surveys and interviews to observations like social media hits, teachers blogging, etc.

By approaching the Wartime Films evaluation from a social research perspective, the key outcomes and ways of measuring those outcomes are aimed at seeing an increase in social engagement. While the activities and measurements for those activities might change over the course of the project, having this framework in place allows us to ensure our overall goals stay consistent.


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The Wartime Films Project: Choosing our User-Centered Design Pilot – A WWI App [feedly]



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The Wartime Films Project: Choosing our User-Centered Design Pilot – A WWI App
// NARAtions

This post comes from Kerri Young at Historypin, our partners in the Wartime Films engagement project, and is part of a series outlining how NARA is using design thinking to reach new and existing audiences.

Watching Motion Picture Preservation staff hard at work restoring a film from RG-111, the primary record group containing a series of WWI films that we're utilizing for this project.

Watching Motion Picture Preservation staff hard at work restoring a film from RG-111, the primary record group containing a series of WWI films that we're utilizing for this project.

In our last post, we took a look at how we built our evaluation framework for the Wartime Films project, including coming up with audience-focused outcomes that we wanted to see as a result of engagement. The next step was to create a product that will meet the needs of our target audiences while helping us achieve as many desired outcomes as possible.

Carol Swain from NARA's Special Media Records Division, Motion Picture Branch showing the Historypin team research aids for the newly digitized WWI films at NARA's Research Room in College Park, MD.

Carol Swain from NARA's Special Media Records Division, Motion Picture Branch showing the Historypin team research aids for the newly digitized WWI films at NARA's Research Room in College Park, MD.

Of course, the heart of this project is hundreds of wartime moving images and about 100,000 photographs being expertly preserved and digitized by NARA curators, many never-before-seen. In light of the upcoming 100-year anniversary of the US entering World War I in 2017, we can tie into renewed interest in the conflict and local and national efforts focused on the centenary.

The first step of our product design required us to assess what products and tools might address the existing needs of our target audiences. When we thought about teachers and museums in particular, we considered the proliferation of digitally accessible primary sources, the challenge of discoverability, and the availability of textbooks and guides for studying WWI. We began to imagine a product that could not only bring NARA's WWI content to light in a dynamic and tactile way, but also to create a tool that could help to enable real exchange, where teachers and local museums could help to shape the product we create.

A close-up of some of the research aids we looked at, including film shot-lists and accession cards, which helped give us a better understanding of the breadth of subject material covered in NARA's WWI films.

A close-up of some of the research aids we looked at, including film shot-lists and accession cards, which helped give us a better understanding of the breadth of subject material covered in NARA's WWI films.

With WWI as our focus, our priority was to gather collections together in a way that would enable people to tell stories. Teachers and museums place significant importance on understanding historical documents, constructing theses, and finding documents to help explain those theses. Understanding this helped us to start identifying goals for an application that would speak to both these target audiences and the ways in which they want to engage with the records.

Starting to sketch out early designs of what the app might do, based upon our increasing understanding of the WWI content we are working with.

Starting to sketch out early designs of what the app might do, based upon our increasing understanding of the WWI content we are working with.

At the same time, we also wanted to try and enrich the collections themselves. We thought there might be an opportunity for tagging photos and segmenting moving images, with the goal of recontextualizing the WWI content through a local lens and highlighting often underrepresented narratives. Our aim is to develop an app that allows communities to easily interact with these primary source records and use them to tell their own local stories.

In our next post, we will talk about our user-design process for the app, and how representatives from our audience groups are helping us make the key connections between content and users.


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