Thursday, April 20, 2017

Maritime Monday for April 17th, 2017: Big White Cloud

"Back in 1964 or 65 when I was on the Bushnell, I conned this picture out of Subron 12's Weapons TMCS, he had a bunch of the whole loading evolution, These were good day's back then." – Torpedoman
John Davies Cale, OBE (born 9 March 1942) is a musician, composer, singer-songwriter and record producer, born in Wales, who was a founding member of the experimental rock band the Velvet Underground – (photo)

Since leaving the band in 1968, he has released approximately 30 albums. Of his solo work, Cale is perhaps best known for his album Paris 1919, and his cover version of Leonard Cohen's "Hallelujah". Cale was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Velvet Underground in 1996, and appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 2010.  more on wikipedia

Miss Monkey's favorite album is Honi Soit, (also known as British Passport) released in1981. Some audio-only vids can be heard here on You Tube.

Lithograph of US Ship Independance (sic) struck by a squall of America, Sept. 8, 1842. Razee, bearing the broad pennant of Com. Charles Stewart

USS Independence (1814) was a wooden-hulled, three-masted ship, (originally a ship of the line) and the first to be commissioned by the United States Navy.  In 1836 she was cut down by one deck and re-rated as a 54-gun frigate, (Originally 90). Launched on 22 June 1814 in the Boston Navy Yard, she immediately took on guns and was stationed with frigate USS Constitution to protect the approaches to Boston Harbor.

The hulk at Mare Island. (You wouldn't like me when I'm angry)

Placed in ordinary at New York on 3 July 1852; retired to the Mare Island Navy Yard on 2 October 1857, served as receiving ship there until decommissioned on 3 November 1912.

Plans to renovate and use her as a restaurant for the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in 1915 never came to fruition. On the night of 20 September 1915, Independence was burned on the Hunter's Point mud flats.  more

(reverse view) Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California on 23 April, 1904

From left to right Fortune (YT-11), Grampus (SS-4), Pike (SS-6), and Receiving Ship Independence / NavSource Online: Submarine Photo Archive; Grampus / A-3 (SS-4)

USS Grampus (SS-4) was a Plunger-class submarine (later named A-3) was the fourth ship of the United States Navy, laid down on 10 December 1900 at San Francisco, California, by Union Iron Works; launched on 31 July 1902. On 18 April 1906, men from her crew participated in relief efforts which followed the devastating San Francisco earthquake of 1906.

The submarine torpedo boat operated locally off the California coast until assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet on 28 June 1912. Toward the end of this period of active service, on 17 November 1911, Grampus was renamed A-3. During World War I, A-3 patrolled the waters off the entrance to Manila Bay. Dismantled and used as a target by ships of the Asiatic Fleet, A-3 was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 16 January 1922.  more

USS Grampus (Submarine # 4) in drydock at the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, 23 September 1906
The Museum of Found Photographs
Every now and then you just need to take 5…
sent to us by @shauryalashkari http://ift.tt/2o193Sh
shipsandseasworldwide
Submit Your Photo!
Easing up the Mississippi River with a T2 Tanker grain barge conversion in ballast, Going to a layberth to clean holds to get ready for the next loadout. Photo posted by Jim Taylor to the Tugboating Facebook page.
Deacon's reef shallows; Lelehudi, Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. photo posted by Ludovic
Container City at Trinity Buoy Wharf; Creative Containers on Pinterest

Installed and expanded over the course of four years, Container City, a cargo-tecture complex on Trinity Buoy Wharf, is the crown jewel of London's Docklands.

keep reading on Atlas Obscura

on The Guardian

Whale's eye view reveals feeding habits in Antarctica – video

Ocean Weather Ship Record A (1947)Record B (1947)Record C (1947) – Record D (1947)

British Weather Terms

ban-gull – Summer sea breeze of Scotland.
barber – At sea, a severe storm, carrying sleet, snow or spray, when the temperature is close to feezing.
Blackthorn winter – In England, cold dry winds in the Thames Valley during March and April.

weatheronline.co.uk: Regional climate and weather phenomena are often as typical as the landscape where they are ocurring and thus often have local names, too. Here, we present a selection of typical British weather terms. This selection is by no means complete.  Read on

The USS Jeannette , shown here at Le Havre, France, in 1878, prior to her departure for San Francisco, California. (U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph)

Is a Century-Old Arctic Shipwreck the Key to Predicting Extreme Weather Events?

On July 8, 1879, the USS Jeannette (1878), a three-masted former British navy vessel specially adapted for Arctic waters, set sail from San Francisco on a mission bankrolled by the owner of the New York Herald. The 33-man crew of the Jeannette attempted to locate a hypothetical warm-water current, which supposedly created a "Thermometric Gateway" to the top of the world, the Washington Post reported.

The warm water current proved to be a myth and the Jeannette remained locked in sea ice for nearly two years before the hull was crushed. Only 13 men survived the 700-mile voyage, escaping in small ships boats and by foot.

But something else also survived – the ship's logbooks.  keep reading

The Jeannette photographed in Greenland in the mid 1870s. USNA photo.
Book Review: 'In the Kingdom of Ice' by Hampton Sides

see also: Russian plan to locate and raise the wreck of schooner USS Jeannette

Marine Gallery: Falmouth Docks View 1 #5; painted collage of grey envelopes and brown paper by Nick Gibbard. See more
The Hansy, wrecked off the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall in 1911. Three men onboard were saved by a lifeboat while the remainder of the crew were taken off by rocket apparatus

Beware the coast of Cornwall!

How countless sailors have drowned off idyllic holiday shores during centuries of shipwrecks

Its shores are considered one of Britain's most idyllic holiday destinations. A new study of documents spanning centuries has revealed that Cornwall should also be remembered as Britain's most dangerous coastline, as it has claimed thousands of lives since records began in the 14th century. The far-western county's shores, with its profusion of solid, shallow and sharp rock reefs lurking beneath the ocean surface has taken hundreds of ships over the years. 

keep reading on The Daily Mail

The Weather Watcher: HMS Snowflake – Smiths Dock Company, Middlesborough; Launched on 22 Aug 1941 – converted to Weather Watcher in 1947 at Rosyth; scrapped in Dublin in 1962. Ocean Weather Ships UK

The Spectator Archive: OCEAN WEATHER SHIPS By Sir Nelson Johnson

Out of 308 songs penned by the Fab Four, 48 (16 per cent) make reference to the weather, researchers found

Britain loved The Beatles because they sang about the weather

Big White Cloud – John Cale (audio)

CommentsMaritime Monday Archives



Original Page: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Gcaptain/~3/DiycbNWwuP0/



Sent from my iPad

... B-52 - sunset - slight bank to starboard


... recent examples of my illustration work.



... you may purchase prints of my work here




Original Page: http://atomic-annhilation.blogspot.com/2017/04/b-52-sunset-slight-bank-to-starboard.html



Sent from my iPad

This Week in Military Justice – April 16, 2017

This week at SCOTUS: The Solicitor General filed a brief in opposition to the cert. petition in Sterling. The brief is available here. I'm not aware of any other military justice developments at the Supreme Court, where I'm tracking three cases:

This week at CAAF: The next scheduled oral arguments at CAAF are on April 25, 2017.

This week at the ACCA: The Army CCA's website shows no scheduled oral arguments.

This week at the AFCCA: The Air Force CCA will hear oral argument in United States v. Anderson, No. 2016-17, on Tuesday, April 18, 2017, at 2 p.m. According to the CCA's website, "this argument will be closed and not open for public viewing." The case number indicates that this is either an interlocutory appeal or a petition for extraordinary relief (possibly a petition by an alleged victim under Article 6b).

This week at the CGCCA: The Coast Guard CCA's oral argument schedule shows no scheduled oral arguments.

This week at the NMCCA: The next scheduled oral argument at the Navy-Marine Corps CCA is on May 2, 2017.



Original Page: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/caaflog/~3/ePSO8eHqBu4/



Sent from my iPad

Who Was Živojin Mišić?



General Živojin Mišić (1855–1921) was Serbia's greatest military commander of the First World War. Called from retirement, he led the Serbian forces in defeating the two initial Austrian invasions of his homeland. An opponent of the great retreat across the Albanian mountains to Corfu, he nonetheless accompanied the troops. He later resumed command of the Serbian forces on the Salonika Front that helped decisively defeat Bulgaria and opened back doors into both Austria-Hungary and Turkey.

In the weeks immediately prior to the cessation of hostilities Mišić led his troops deep into Austro-Hungarian territory, both ensuring its collapse but also—more important for him—greatly assisting the creation of the postwar southern Slav state which he had long advocated (ultimately named Yugoslavia).

Appointed chief of general staff with the end of the war, Mišić died on 20 January 1921 at the age of 66.



Original Page: http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2017/04/who-was-zivojin-misic.html



Sent from my iPad

100 Years Ago Today: Lenin Arrives at the Finland Station

On 16 April 16 1917 Vladimir Lenin returned to Petrograd (now, again, St. Petersburg) from exile after the tsar's abdication. Lenin had departed Zurich, his latest place of exile, a week earlier and with the help of the German government and army, made his way back to Russia in the now famous "sealed train."
Lenin's Favorite Haunt in Zurich
He was met by his followers at Finland Station and climbed onto an armored car where he made his famous impassioned speech. With searchlights pointed at him and his followers standing to attention Lenin pronounced on his arrival:

"I greet you without knowing yet whether or not you have believed in all the promises of the Provisional Government. But I am convinced that when they talk to you sweetly, when they promise you a lot, they are deceiving you and the whole Russian people. The people need peace; the people need bread; the people need land. And they give you war, hunger, no bread—leave the landlords still on the land...We must fight for the social revolution, fight to the end, until the complete victory of the proletariat. Long live the worldwide socialist revolution!"


This was probably the most important moment in Lenin's career, after which he took into his own hands the direction of the revolution.

By the time Lenin returned to his homeland the government had been weakened. Russia's involvement in World War One led to the February Revolution. Tsar Nicholas II was eventually forced to hand over his power to the Provisional Government. Almost immediately after his arrival, Lenin published the April Theses, in which he argued that the Bolshevik Party must fight to overthrow the Provisional Government. Lenin's objective was to seize power by force and he demanded for an armed uprising.

He was successful in convincing the Bolshevik Party. In October that same year, armed workers and soldiers stormed the headquarters of the Provisional Government, arresting its members. This became known as the October Revolution. Lenin came to power as the head of the new Soviet government and became the leader of the USSR in 1922 and ruled until his death in 1924.


In memory of the speech he made on this day, a statue outside Finland Station was erected in 1926 depicting him in the midst of his address. The monument that became one of the most famous statues of Lenin was bombed by vandals on 1 April 2009, leaving a huge hole in the lower part of Lenin's bronze coat. No one was hurt in the blast, and it is not known who was responsible. 

Source: Content from Russiapedia, Photos by Steve Miller



Original Page: http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2017/04/100-years-ago-today-lenin-arrives-at.html



Sent from my iPad

When Was the Conspiracy to Assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand Hatched?

Answer: April 1914

That month Gavrilo Princip was in Belgrade, where he associated with a number of Serbian students in town cafes and conceived a plan for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He shared the plan with his acquaintance Nedeljko Čabrinović, also in Belgrade, who held similar views and agreed at once to participate in the attempt.

The Conspirators in Court, Princip Circled

Attempts on the archduke's life were a frequent topic of conversation in the circles in which Princip and Čabrinović moved, as the archduke seen as a dangerous enemy of the Serbian people.

Princip and Čabrinović desired at first to procure the necessary bombs and weapons from Serbian Major Milan Pribićević or from the Narodna Odbrana, [the Black Hand] as they lacked the money to purchase the weapons. Since both Pribićević and Živojin Dačić, a leading member of the Black Hand, were absent from Belgrade, they then tried to get the weapons from their acquaintance Milan Ciganović, a former Komitadji [nationalist rebels originally working against the Ottomans] currently working for the state railways. 

Princip contacted Ciganović though a friend and discussed the assassination plan with him. Ciganović endorsed the plan and indicated he would consider providing weapons. Čabrinović also talked with Ciganović about the weapons.

At Easter Princip took Trifko Grabež, also in Belgrade, into his confidence. In his later confession, Grabež admitted his willingness to take part in the attempt. In the following weeks Princip repeatedly discussed the plans with Ciganović, who meanwhile had reached an understanding with his close friend Serbian Major Voja Tankosić to provide the Browning pistols Princip used on 28 June to kill the archduke and his wife, Sophie. 

Sources: Austrian Court District of Sarajevo Record



Original Page: http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2017/04/when-was-conspiracy-to-assassinate.html



Sent from my iPad

A Roads Classic: Ten Quotes About the Battle of the Somme

(This is the most viewed entry I've ever made in Roads to the Great War.  MH)

With the 99th anniversary of the famous battle coming in two weeks on 1 July, I've dug through the files and found some of the more memorable things said of the event. I found it hard, though, to find anything matching Kipling's poignant, "A Garden called Gethsemane, in Picardy it was... 


The River Somme

1. Before the world grew mad, the Somme was a placid stream of Picardy, flowing gently through a broad and winding valley northwards to the English Channel. It watered a country of simple beauty...Then came the pestilence.

A.D. Gristwood


2.  Every Englishman has a picture of the Somme in his mind, and I will not try to enlarge it.

A.P. Herbert


3.  The literature of 1 July 1916 is endless. Salutary at first, a proper corrective to the streams of propaganda claptrap about "laughing heroes" and "the Great Adventure" which had previously gushed forth, after a time it developed into a most mischievous mythology.

John Terraine 


Depiction of the 1 July 1916 Attack

4.  Devonshires Held This Trench, the Devonshires Hold It Still

Marker, Devonshire Cemetery


5.  South of the Ancre was a broad-backed high ground, and on that ground a black vapour of smoke and naked tree trunks or charcoal, an apparition which I found was called Thiepval Wood. The Somme indeed!

Edmund Blunden


6.  During my whole life I have not found a happier hunting ground than in the course of the Somme Battle. In the morning, as soon as I had got up, the first Englishmen arrived, and the last did not disappear until long after sunset.  Boelcke once said that this was the El Dorado of the flying men.

Manfred von Richthofen


7.  It seemed all over, hardly 20 minutes from the start. It was a strong point and still was, even with reinforcements it would be hopeless, with those sodding machine guns still in action. Behind we could see where we started from, in front, the Jerry lines on slightly rising ground. We could see the shape of the Quadrilateral, like a squashed diamond, behind the bank. Judging by the damned chatter when we were going over, a hidden machine gun at every point. Quiet enough now, they had already done all the damage, not giving their position away now, leaving the Jerries in the line to do the odd firing.

Harry Leedham



8.  Idealism perished on the Somme.

A.J. P. Taylor

9.  The tragedy of the Somme battle was that the best soldiers, the stoutest-hearted men were lost; their numbers were replaceable, their spiritual worth never could be.

Unidentified German Soldier

10.  It's the end of the 1916 winter and the conditions are almost unbelievable. We live in a world of Somme mud. We sleep in it, work in it, fight in it, wade in it and many of us die in it. We see it, feel it, eat it and curse it, but we can't escape it, not even by dying.

Edward Lynch



Original Page: http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2017/04/a-roads-classic-ten-quotes-about-battle.html



Sent from my iPad

Leadership: the big effect of little things

eval-board-info-7-728Odds are you probably missed CNO Richardson talking to Naval Special Warfare East last week.

In it, he addresses a sore spot that goes back decades, and in my two decades+ of service only got worse; the infamous Collateral Duty List and its abuse of size and importance.

I highly encourage you to watch the full video embedded below, but here is a rather sublime quote.

(What we're) talking about is sort of a bigger issue where … it's just kind of not enough to be an expert at your job, to be a good person, to be a leader, and an exemplary … Sailor. …

Somehow you need to go off and get something more. You need to get a collateral duty. … This whole idea …. that without a bunch of collaterals, you're just not going to be competitive for advancement.

What that does … it waters down our mission focus.

I want to be the absolute most lethal navy, the most feared navy on the face of the earth, and I don't need a lot of collaterals to do that. I just need a lot of people who know how to do their job, fight their team, fight their ship, and defeat the enemy – and that should be enough to get advanced in our Navy. …

You don't need a lot of collateral duties. A lot of those things are bologna anyway.

There are a lot of units out there where the collateral duty list is bigger than the number of people in the unit.

I challenge you to take that notice (the collateral duty list) … and just line out the stuff that is stupid, and then mail that to me, and I'll kill it.

…Now some of those things please keep. They're not all stupid, but we'll just line out the dumb ones and focus on warfighting.

We should all keep an eye on the followthrough, but the CNO is by all intentions sincere here. I expect he will follow through.

It may seem small, but this is a huge thing in the fleet. Command by command, this will free up so much time and decrease wasted effort. Such an easy thing to do that will increase morale and efficiency. There is no downside except for those whose pet ox that is supported by these self-licking ice cream cones is gored.

Next we can move on to a few BA/NMP O2 thieves on everyone's manpower document that need to recoded with a focus towards warfighting, but for now, we'll take what we have.

BZ CNO.




Original Page: https://blog.usni.org/2017/04/19/leadership-the-big-effect-of-little-things



Sent from my iPad

Dangers of MCAS Futenma remain unresolved 21 years after base return agreement

Dangers of MCAS Futenma remain unresolved 21 years after base return agreement

MV-22 Osprey and CH-53 helicopters stationed at USMCAS Futenma at 11:00 a.m. in Ginowan City


April 12, 2017 Ryukyu Shimpo

April 12 marked 21 years since the U.S. and Japanese governments agreed on the whole return of Futenma Air Station to Okinawa. Since the Futenma Air Station return plan set forth construction of a replacement facility in Henoko and therefore within Okinawa, Okinawans have continued to oppose relocation of MCAS Futenma within the prefecture. The governments of the U.S. and Japan are forcing through construction by asserting that the only solution to the dangers of Futenma Air Station is relocation of the base to Henoko. This month the first step of land reclamation in Henoko, which will be embankment work, is expected to start. As such, the contention between Okinawans and the Japanese government is becoming increasingly tempestuous.

Governor Takeshi Onaga is considering revoking the land reclamation permit and pursuing a legal request to suspend construction operations. However, he is not sure how effective these measures will be and understands there are risks such as incurring restitution claims. With these considerations in mind he is trying to find the right time to act. The Japanese government is also increasing pressure on Governor Onaga by hinting at the possibility of restitution claims against him.

In July 2016, the Government of Japan brought a lawsuit against the Okinawa Prefectural Government claiming that Governor Onaga's cancellation of the land reclamation permit was illegal. Okinawa's loss of the case was confirmed in the Supreme Court of Japan in December the same year, and construction into the ocean was resumed. At the end of March 2017, former governor Hirokazu Nakaima's approval of coral fracturing expired. The Japanese government is expected to continue construction and plunge into embankment work while still unauthorized.

The Japanese government agreed to close Futenma Air Station operation within a 5-year period of February 2014, in answer to a request from the former governor Nakaima. However since Onaga took office, the Japanese government has tossed aside its previous promises and changed its tone, saying that the closure of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma is contingent on the prefectural government's cooperation in moving forward with Henoko relocation.

(English translation by T&CT and Erin Jones)

Go to Japanese

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on Twitter

Previous Article:Discovery of new orchid in Yambaru reported in international journal

Next Article:

[Similar Articles]




Original Page: http://english.ryukyushimpo.jp/2017/04/19/26826/



Sent from my iPad

Establishment of Web Histreet: search postwar Okinawa history articles via a website

Establishment of Web Histreet: search postwar Okinawa history articles via a website

Kiosks, used to search resources, in the Histreet gallery located in Chuo, Okinawa City.


April 12, 2017 Ryukyu Shimpo

[Okinawa] This past March, the City History Editorial Officers of Okinawa City established "Web Histreet," the Okinawa City Postwar Data Digital Archive, a website that promotes various resources regarding the city's postwar history. The site enables people to search for news articles regarding topics they are interested in. People can then view the printed article on one of the kiosks located in "Histreet," the City Postwar Cultural Gallery located in Chuo, Okinawa City. Currently, the website holds several hundred thousand articles from Ryukyu Shimpo and Okinawa Times, which will continue to grow. The hope is for people to make use of this resource when researching Okinawa's postwar history and to attract more people to the gallery.

Establishing the website was a part of a 2016 project for the city called, "Postwar Cultural Gallery Project." The website was funded by a one-time grant and is available in Japanese, English, Korean, and Chinese (traditional and simplified) languages. The website also promotes information on exhibitions currently being held at the gallery, along with resources published by the City History Editorial Officers.

The website holds a large amount of old newspaper articles. For example, articles from Ryukyu Shimpo's predecessor, Uruma Shimpo. It also carries articles from Chubu Information and Chubu Daily, which circulated throughout the central part of the Okinawa Main Island between the mid-1950s to the early 1960s. People are able to search by keyword(s) or from a chronological table. A list of related articles and their headlines will display after clicking the search button. Additionally, there about 100 video clips.

The search function can be used anywhere as long as there is Internet access. However, viewing the printed articles and video footage, along with printing can only be done from one of the four kiosks located in the main Histreet building. Additionally, printing requires an application to the city, and depending on the article, some cannot be printed.

Project General Manager Genta Maeshiro explained, "A large amount of government documents under the U.S. occupation were destroyed. In order to understand the situation of back then, (we) began collecting newspaper articles." He then said, "(We) would like people to learn more about the city's history" and urged people to utilize the website.

(English translation by T&CT and Chelsea Ashimine)

Go to Japanese

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on Twitter

Previous Article:Okinawa prefectural government designs pamphlets to dispel misinformation on US bases issues


Next Article:Sumiko Kitajima, who spread a message of peace with her one-woman play, dies at 85

[Similar Articles]




Original Page: http://english.ryukyushimpo.jp/2017/04/18/26779/



Sent from my iPad

Okinawa prefectural government designs pamphlets to dispel misinformation on US bases issues

Okinawa prefectural government designs pamphlets to dispel misinformation on US bases issues

Pictured is a page of the pamphlet containing examples of economic development using returned U.S. base land, and an answer to a question about if U.S. military bases being withdrawn from Okinawa would lead to negative economic effects for Okinawa.


April 11, 2017 Ryukyu Shimpo

On April 10, the Okinawa prefectural government (OPG) finished producing question-and-answer format pamphlets presenting the problems at hand with U.S. military base issues in a way that is simple and easy-to-understand. Examples of misinformation and baseless allegations regarding Okinawa have been seen here and there, which is keeping resolutions to base issues at bay. The goal of the 40,000 pamphlets is to provide correct information. Most will be sent to schools and private businesses in Okinawa, but the remaining 1,700 will be distributed in cities, towns and villages throughout Japan.

These pamphlets answer questions including the following: Weren't U.S. military bases built on empty plots, and don't people live in the vicinity? Isn't Okinawa's economy largely dependent on U.S. bases? Wouldn't revising the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement be troublesome?

In addition the pamphlets explain Okinawa's state of affairs using statistics and pictures related to Okinawa's history, the layout of prewar villages, Okinawa's economic climate, and the current status of U.S. military stationing agreements in other countries.

The Oura Bay site in Nago planned for Futenma Air Station's replacement facility is home to 5,800 species of animals and plants including 262 endangered species. These numbers are comparable to those of Japan's World Natural Heritage sites. The pamphlets include photographs of these species and the coral reef.

Head of the Executive Office of the Okinawa Governor Kiichiro Jahana said, "Currently there are many misunderstandings in regards to Okinawa's base issues, including among young people in Okinawa." He hopes people across Japan will understand the truth regarding the formation and history of bases in Okinawa, and that this understanding may lead base issues to be resolved.

(English translation by T&CT and Erin Jones)

Go to Japanese

Share on FacebookShare on Google+Tweet about this on Twitter

Previous Article:"Money is temporary but sorrow continues for 200 years," say citizens against new base construction in Henoko


Next Article:Establishment of Web Histreet: search postwar Okinawa history articles via a website

[Similar Articles]




Original Page: http://english.ryukyushimpo.jp/2017/04/18/26772/



Sent from my iPad

Maritime Moustaches

Able Seaman Thomas Fleming Walker in the uniform of the New South Wales Naval Brigade circa 1900. ANMM Collection 00054875. Gift from John Walker.

Able Seaman Thomas Fleming Walker in the uniform of the New South Wales Naval Brigade circa 1900. ANMM Collection 00054875. Gift from John Walker.

Moustaches were big in the late 19th century. Really big.

As the wielder of a reasonably large moustache, I thought I might look into the museum's collection of photographs and see how many and what sorts of moustaches are there. My hunch was correct – there are hundreds and hundreds of them. From nice thick 'chevrons', to the simple 'English style', to the classic 'handlebar' and even a few 'walrus' and 'toothbrushes'.

Was there a particular 'maritime style' though? After looking at quite a few moustaches of sea captains, stewards, engineers and crew, I could not see one that differed from the general facial hair trends. There do appear to be differences between the officers of ships and their crews that probably reflect available time and money as much as an effort to impress. The waxing and curling and general care of outrageous moustaches was expensive.

Unidentified man with a moustache (and beard). Samuel J Hood Studio ANMM Collection 00036910.

Unidentified man with moustache (and beard). Samuel J Hood Studio ANMM Collection 00036910.

Still, the more hirsute average sailor could certainly have a large drooping walrus moustache and a captain might go for the short and simple toothbrush style made famous by Charlie Chaplin and infamous by Adolf Hitler.

Unidentified man with a 'toothbrush' moustache. Photographer William James Hall ANMM Collection 00013206.

Unidentified man with a 'toothbrush' moustache. Photographer William James Hall ANMM Collection 00013206.

Moustaches were linked to expressions of masculinity as much as style. In the mid-nineteenth century beards and sideburns were all the rage and apparently outward signs of virility and good health. By the 1880s, the introduction of personal safety razors gave expression to the more creative moustache style – and a very 'modern man'.

While there were obvious trends in moustaches, whiskers and beards during the 19th and 20th centuries, trying to date a photograph or painting by facial hair styles is not always easy. Individual styles change and get recycled constantly.

Here is a selection of some of the many moustachioed figures in the National Maritime Collection.

Possibly 'Strongman' Stephen P Cohen. ANMM Collection ANMS1032[014]_01, donated through the Australian Government Cultural Gifts Program by the Williams family, descendants of Beatrice Kerr.

Possibly 'Strongman' Stephen P Cohen. ANMM Collection ANMS1032[014]_01, donated through the Australian Government Cultural Gifts Program by the Williams family, descendants of Beatrice Kerr.

— Dr Stephen Gapps, Curator

Explore our collection for more vintage fashion inspiration and marvellous moustaches.



Original Page: https://anmm.wordpress.com/2017/04/19/maritime-moustaches/



Sent from my iPad

World War I: The Library of Congress Memorial Tree

Tree planting ceremony. Photo by Underwood & Underwood, Dec. 7, 1920. Prints and Photographs Division.

Tree planting ceremony. Photo by Underwood & Underwood, Dec. 7, 1920. Prints and Photographs Division.

The Library's Thomas Jefferson Building is bordered by a number of impressive trees. One of them, a Japanese elm at the southwest corner of the building, was planted on Dec. 17, 1921, in memory of four Library of Congress staff members killed while serving in World War I. According to an article published in the Jan. 1, 1921, issue of the Library Journal, the planting of the tree was supervised by Superintendent of Building and Grounds Bernard Green. The article includes this photograph of the ceremony, which can be found in the Prints and Photographs Division.

The Library's service flag, bearing 95 stars for all Library staff members who served, is stretched out in the wind. The day looks bright, but it must also have been cold. The crowd members wear hats and thick coats, but Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam, addressing them in the photo, has taken off his hat. Behind him, the American flag flies at half-staff on the Jefferson Building.

Putnam paid tribute to the four men, Cpl. Charles Chambers (312th machine-gun battalion), 1st Lt. Edward Comegys (11th Aero squadron), Cpl. Frank Dunkin (54th U.S. Infantry) and Cpl. John Wheeler (U.S. Signal Corps). Out of the 250 men employed by the Library, 89 had enlisted and four never returned.

A.L.A. Library War Services Headquarters in the Library of Congress. 1918 or 1919. Prints and Photographs Division.

A.L.A. Library War Services Headquarters in the Library of Congress. 1918 or 1919. Prints and Photographs Division.

Chambers worked in the Smithsonian Section, Comegys and Dunkin worked in the Copyright Office and Wheeler was a member of the building maintenance force. Putnam wished to say more about their service but lamented that the "details of it are meager and unequal." The available information was that, like many military deaths of World War I, the four men died from disease, not combat. He offered some information on their service:

Of the service – and character – of Lieutenant Comegys, his first Commanding Office, Captain Powell [who attended the ceremony], is to say something. He alone, of the four was killed in action – in the St. Mihiel drive. Dunkin also was in fierce fighting in which he showed both dash and grit. But it was not in action but in hospitals that he and Chambers came to their end – and both from pneumonia due to exposure in the trenches.

 Chambers had reached the fighting zone – on the Meuse – and was within reach of the German "heavies." But the satisfaction of a response with his own gun was denied him; for before his unit – "Washington's Own" – took the offensive that ended in the capture of Montfaucon – on the very night before this – he was rated too ill to fight. With 25 others of his Company, he was hurried to a field hospital and later to Hospital 26 at Alleray. There, within a few days, he died.

Plaque of the memorial tree commemorating Library employees fallen during WWI. Photo by Shwn Miller.

Plaque of the memorial tree commemorating Library employees fallen during WWI. Photo by Shwn Miller.

Wheeler did not have the fortune to be sent abroad. His value was found in photographic work for which, after preparation at Columbia, he was detailed to Camp Merritt. It was there he died, also of pneumonia.

Besides Putnam, speakers included Rep. Julius Kahn of California, chairman of the House Committee on Military Affairs, Col. Lester Jones, Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and first commander of the American Legion, and Captain Garland Powell, commander of the 22nd Aero squadron, in which Lt. Comegys served. Planes from Bolling Field circled overhead during Capt. Powell's remarks. The U.S. Marine Band performed.

Putnam finished his remarks with these lines from Rupert Brooke's 1914 poem, "The Dead," and from Marjorie L.C. Pickthal's poem "When It Is Finished."

"The Dead," Rupert Brooke

These laid the world away; poured out the red

Sweet wine of youth; gave up the years to be

Of work and joy, and that unhoped serene,

That men call age; and those who would have been,

Their sons, they gave, their immortality.

"When It is Finished," Marjorie L.C. Pickthal

Bid us remember in what days they gave

All that mankind may give

That we might live.

American Library Association, United War Work Campaign, Nov. 11, 1918. Prints and Photographs Division.

American Library Association, United War Work Campaign, Nov. 11, 1918. Prints and Photographs Division.

During the war, not only did men go to war, so did books. According to Wayne Wiegand, distinguished visiting scholar at the John W. Kluge Center, the American Library Association established its Library War Service in 1917 to provide books and library services to US soldiers and sailors both in training at home and serving in Europe. In fact, 12-year-old Rachel Ashley, daughter of Frederick William Ashley, who was the superintendent of the Library of Congress main reading room at the time, dropped off ALA leaflets at homes in her Washington, D.C. neighborhood inviting neighbors to donate books for the effort, wrote Wiegand in an article for American Libraries Magazine.

World War I Centennial, 2017-2018: With the most comprehensive collection of multi-format World War I holdings in the nation, the Library of Congress is a unique resource for primary source materials, education plans, public programs and on-site visitor experiences about The Great War including exhibits, symposia and book talks.



Original Page: http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2017/04/world-war-i-the-library-of-congress-memorial-tree/



Sent from my iPad

Inquiring Minds: African-American Soldiers in World War I

Adriane Lentz-Smith

The following is an article from the March/April 2017 issue of LCM, the Library of Congress Magazine, in which Adriane Lentz-Smith discusses her research at the Library of Congress into the experiences of African-American soldiers in World War I. Lentz-Smith is an associate professor at Duke University, author of "Freedom Struggles: African-Americans and World War I" and an adviser to the Library's World War I exhibition. She is also the featured expert about the role of African-Americans in the war for the PBS documentary "The Great War."

African-American soldiers and civilians in the World War I years saw the war as both obligation and opportunity. Over 380,000 African-Americans served in the nation's strictly segregated military during the war years, 200,000 traveling with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF).

Whether they numbered among the 40,000 who served in the two African-American combat divisions or among the majority relegated to labor battalions, black soldiers fought two wars for democracy: President Wilson's against the Central Powers and their own against white supremacy and Jim Crow. Army lieutenant and, later, Howard University professor Rayford Logan would speak for countless African-American veterans when he wrote in his memoirs that he had been marked by both wars, Woodrow Wilson's and his own, and that he could not discern fully which war had a more lasting effect.

I found my way to World War I through Rayford Logan and other African-Americans, such as AEF lieutenant (and later civil rights lawyer) Charles Houston, whose experience veered between service and heartbreak. My interest started with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)'s investigation of the 1917 police attack on black soldiers and their subsequent mutiny in Houston, Texas.

I visited the Library of Congress Manuscript Division to see whether the records of the NAACP housed there contained more incidents of brutal treatment and black rebellion, and to explore what World War I had meant to African-Americans who funneled their activism through local NAACP branches.

The papers opened up a project: they were filled with accounts of everyday people making meaning of the war, defending soldiers—sometimes literally in the cases of troops who ran afoul of the law or of brutal ranking officers—weighing in on what citizenship rights should accrue to black soldiers and linking soldiers' fates to their own.

The stories, figures and interpretations that I found in them helped me to determine which additional Library collections to seek out, including the papers of Rayford Logan and those of William L. Houston, Charles Houston's father.

I was no expert when I walked into the Library; I learned how to ask productive questions by wading through the NAACP papers, but Rayford Logan's papers helped me see the disjuncture between wartime rhetoric and practice. Historian that he was, Logan meticulously recorded in his diary memories of the humiliations heaped on him by white superior officers. Recalling a lieutenant colonel who insisted on assigning sleeping quarters by race over rank, Logan acerbically described the officer's commitment to segregation as "a perfect example of the American democracy in war."

I also learned from colleagues I met in the Manuscript Division reading room. Indeed, every time I see my book, "Freedom Struggles," I think of Jennifer Keene, historian at Chapman College, who first showed me the war poster "True Sons of Freedom" that eventually became my book cover. The intellectual community fostered in the reading room was but one of the many Library of Congress resources that shaped my work.



Original Page: http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2017/04/inquiring-minds-african-american-soldiers-in-world-war-i/



Sent from my iPad

GAO-17-323, Littoral Combat Ship and Frigate: Delaying Planned Frigate Acquisition Would Enable Better-Informed Decisions, April 18, 2017

What GAO Found

The Navy's current acquisition approach for its new frigate—a ship based on a Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) design with minor modifications—requires Congress to make significant program decisions and commitments in 2017 without key cost, design, and capability knowledge. In particular, the Navy plans to request authority from Congress in 2017 to pursue what the Navy calls a block buy of 12 planned frigates and funding for the lead ship, which the Navy intends to award in 2018. Approval of these plans would effectively represent the final decision for the entire planned buy of 40 LCS and frigates. According to the Navy's approved acquisition strategy, the frigates would still require annual appropriations, so Congress would maintain its oversight through its annual appropriation decisions; however, any decision to reduce or delay the program, should that become warranted, could nevertheless be more difficult as the Navy may point to losses in favorable block buy prices, as has been done previously with LCS.

The Navy's impending request presents a key opportunity for Congress to affect the way forward for the frigate program by ensuring the Navy possesses sufficient knowledge on cost, design, and capability before authorizing an investment of a potential $9 billion for a program that

• has no current formal cost estimate—independent or otherwise,

• will not begin key detail design activities until late fiscal year 2018,

• has significant unknowns in regards to operational performance of the ship upon which its design will be based, and

• based on the existing and planned shipyard workloads, has no industrial base imperative to begin construction in the Navy's planned time frame.

The Navy's previous frigate acquisition plans included achieving a higher degree of ship design knowledge before awarding the lead ship in fiscal year 2019, as the plans included significant detail design activities prior to contract award. As GAO has previously found, such an approach—which has been supported by shipbuilders—offers greater confidence in the understanding of design changes and how they will affect ship construction costs. Further, as GAO's work on best practices for program cost estimates suggests, the Navy's prior plans for frigate design efforts and an award in fiscal year 2019 would have provided more information on which to base a decision, including a better understanding of risks and costs. The previous plans also better aligned with LCS test plans to improve the department's understanding of the operational capability and limitations for each ship variant. This knowledge could then be used to inform the Navy's decision on which LCS-based design for the frigate it will pursue. In addition to the valuable knowledge to be gained by not pursuing the frigate in the planned 2018 time frame, the existing and planned LCS construction workload for both shipyards is another important factor to consider. Specifically, each shipyard has LCS construction demands that extend into 2021, suggesting no imperative for the Navy to award the frigate in 2018. Delaying the frigate award until at least fiscal year 2019—when more is known about cost, design, and capabilities—would enable better-informed decisions and oversight for this potential $9 billion taxpayer investment.

Why GAO Did This Study

The Navy envisioned a revolutionary approach for the LCS program: dual ship designs with interchangeable mission packages intended to provide mission flexibility. This approach has fallen short, with significant cost increases, schedule delays, and reduced capabilities—some of which have yet to be demonstrated. The LCS acquisition approach has changed several times. The latest change led to the frigate—a ship that involves minor modifications to an LCS design.

The House report 114-537 for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 included a provision for GAO to examine the Navy's plans for the frigate. This report examines the Navy's plans for the frigate acquisition as well as remaining opportunities for oversight. To conduct this work, GAO reviewed documentation and interviewed Department of Defense (DOD) officials, and leveraged prior GAO reports on shipbuilding and acquisition best practices.

What GAO Recommends

Congress should consider not enacting authority pursuant to the Navy's request for a block buy of 12 frigates in fiscal year 2018 and delaying funding of the lead frigate until at least fiscal year 2019, when more information is available on the ship's cost, design, and capabilities. GAO also recommends that DOD delay its procurement plans until sufficient knowledge is attained. DOD partially concurred with the recommendation but is not planning to delay frigate procurement. GAO continues to believe the recommendation is valid.

For more information, contact Michele Mackin at (202) 512-4841 or mackinm@gao.gov.



Original Page: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-17-323?source=ra



Sent from my iPad

GAO-17-402, Amphibious Combat Vehicle Acquisition: Cost Estimate Meets Best Practices, but Concurrency between Testing and Production Increases Risk, April 18, 2017

What GAO Found

GAO assessed the cost estimate for the first increment of the Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) program—ACV 1.1—and found that it was developed in accordance with best practices. The cost estimate, (approximately $2.0 billion for development and procurement and $4.2 billion for operations and support), which included both the Department of Defense (DOD) Office of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation's (CAPE) and program cost estimates, fully or substantially met the criteria for the four characteristics of a high-quality, reliable cost estimate. Specifically, GAO found that the estimate:

  • fully met the characteristic of being comprehensive,
  • substantially met the characteristic of being well-documented,
  • fully met the characteristic of being accurate, and
  • substantially met the characteristic of being credible.

However, GAO also found that a comparison of Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV) to ACV 1.1 operations and support costs reported by DOD to Congress—through Selective Acquisition Reports (SARs)—may be overstating comparison AAV costs as a result of an underlying assumption relating to troop carrying capacity. The ACV SAR provides comparison costs for 204 ACVs and 204 AAVs, implying a one-for-one replacement of AAVs by ACVs, when in fact comparatively more ACVs may be required because they are expected to carry fewer marines. Specifically, the AAV can transport 17 marines, while the ACV 1.1 will carry a minimum of 10 marines or up to 13. Further, program officials informed GAO that only 180 AAVs would likely be replaced by the incoming 204 ACV 1.1s. Internal control standards call for communication of quality information—including externally—to achieve an entity's objectives. SARs provide useful information to Congress that can be used in decision making. Without revising the assumption, DOD may overstate the operations and support costs savings that may be realized through acquisition of the ACV 1.1.

Despite a December 2015 bid protest (that was denied), the Marine Corps is maintaining an aggressive schedule to achieve initial operational capability—the point at which it will receive vehicles and have the ability to employ them—while increasing program risk. The bid protest delayed multiple program events ranging from testing to the start of production. For example, developmental testing, initially planned for February 2017, will not begin until April 2017—around the same time that Congress typically decides whether to fund program activities for the following fiscal year. The program's current schedule increases the level of concurrency, or overlap, between testing and production—placing the program at an increased risk of discovering deficiencies after some vehicles have been built, potentially requiring costly modifications. Further, the current schedule for the production decision could weaken Congressional oversight as Congress will likely be deciding whether to provide funds for ACV production before results from developmental testing are available. Internal control standards call for management's use of quality information to make informed decisions. Postponing the program's production decision until early fiscal year 2019 would reduce concurrency and enable Congress to obtain sufficient knowledge prior to making a procurement funding decision.

Why GAO Did This Study

In 2011, the Marine Corps began the acquisition process for the ACV as a potential replacement for all or a portion of the AAV fleet, the primary way to transport marines from ship to shore under hostile and hazardous conditions. The ACV fleet is to have improved protected land mobility.

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 included a provision that GAO annually review and report on the ACV program until 2018. This report, GAO's fifth, assesses the extent to which (1) the cost estimate for the ACV program's first increment aligns with best practices and operations and support costs are accurately reported; and (2) the program's schedule changes affect risk. GAO assessed the cost estimate for the program against best practices in GAO's Cost Estimating Guide. GAO also compared the program's previous and current schedule and test plans, and interviewed program officials.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends that DOD (1) adjust the key assumption used to calculate the estimated AAV operations and support costs presented in the ACV SARs; and (2) postpone the ACV 1.1 production decision until early fiscal year 2019. DOD concurred with the first recommendation and non-concurred with the second, stating that delaying the decision could affect the ACV fielding schedule and other efforts. As discussed in the report, GAO stands by its recommendation because the approved ACV acquisition program baseline indicates it is acceptable for the production decision to occur as late as December 2018 (which is in fiscal year 2019).

For more information, contact Marie A. Mak at (202) 512-4841 or makm@gao.gov.


Page 2

What GAO Found

GAO assessed the cost estimate for the first increment of the Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) program—ACV 1.1—and found that it was developed in accordance with best practices. The cost estimate, (approximately $2.0 billion for development and procurement and $4.2 billion for operations and support), which included both the Department of Defense (DOD) Office of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation's (CAPE) and program cost estimates, fully or substantially met the criteria for the four characteristics of a high-quality, reliable cost estimate. Specifically, GAO found that the estimate:

  • fully met the characteristic of being comprehensive,
  • substantially met the characteristic of being well-documented,
  • fully met the characteristic of being accurate, and
  • substantially met the characteristic of being credible.

However, GAO also found that a comparison of Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV) to ACV 1.1 operations and support costs reported by DOD to Congress—through Selective Acquisition Reports (SARs)—may be overstating comparison AAV costs as a result of an underlying assumption relating to troop carrying capacity. The ACV SAR provides comparison costs for 204 ACVs and 204 AAVs, implying a one-for-one replacement of AAVs by ACVs, when in fact comparatively more ACVs may be required because they are expected to carry fewer marines. Specifically, the AAV can transport 17 marines, while the ACV 1.1 will carry a minimum of 10 marines or up to 13. Further, program officials informed GAO that only 180 AAVs would likely be replaced by the incoming 204 ACV 1.1s. Internal control standards call for communication of quality information—including externally—to achieve an entity's objectives. SARs provide useful information to Congress that can be used in decision making. Without revising the assumption, DOD may overstate the operations and support costs savings that may be realized through acquisition of the ACV 1.1.

Despite a December 2015 bid protest (that was denied), the Marine Corps is maintaining an aggressive schedule to achieve initial operational capability—the point at which it will receive vehicles and have the ability to employ them—while increasing program risk. The bid protest delayed multiple program events ranging from testing to the start of production. For example, developmental testing, initially planned for February 2017, will not begin until April 2017—around the same time that Congress typically decides whether to fund program activities for the following fiscal year. The program's current schedule increases the level of concurrency, or overlap, between testing and production—placing the program at an increased risk of discovering deficiencies after some vehicles have been built, potentially requiring costly modifications. Further, the current schedule for the production decision could weaken Congressional oversight as Congress will likely be deciding whether to provide funds for ACV production before results from developmental testing are available. Internal control standards call for management's use of quality information to make informed decisions. Postponing the program's production decision until early fiscal year 2019 would reduce concurrency and enable Congress to obtain sufficient knowledge prior to making a procurement funding decision.

Why GAO Did This Study

In 2011, the Marine Corps began the acquisition process for the ACV as a potential replacement for all or a portion of the AAV fleet, the primary way to transport marines from ship to shore under hostile and hazardous conditions. The ACV fleet is to have improved protected land mobility.

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 included a provision that GAO annually review and report on the ACV program until 2018. This report, GAO's fifth, assesses the extent to which (1) the cost estimate for the ACV program's first increment aligns with best practices and operations and support costs are accurately reported; and (2) the program's schedule changes affect risk. GAO assessed the cost estimate for the program against best practices in GAO's Cost Estimating Guide. GAO also compared the program's previous and current schedule and test plans, and interviewed program officials.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends that DOD (1) adjust the key assumption used to calculate the estimated AAV operations and support costs presented in the ACV SARs; and (2) postpone the ACV 1.1 production decision until early fiscal year 2019. DOD concurred with the first recommendation and non-concurred with the second, stating that delaying the decision could affect the ACV fielding schedule and other efforts. As discussed in the report, GAO stands by its recommendation because the approved ACV acquisition program baseline indicates it is acceptable for the production decision to occur as late as December 2018 (which is in fiscal year 2019).

For more information, contact Marie A. Mak at (202) 512-4841 or makm@gao.gov.



Original Page: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-17-402?source=ra



Sent from my iPad

Naval Search Engine

Total Pageviews

Find-A-Grave Link

Search 62.2 million cemetery records at by entering a surname and clicking search:
Surname: